Research Paper (Articles)

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    Assessment of community engagement and success of education projects in Tanzania: A case of Changarawe village, Morogoro
    (Social Sciences, Humanities and Education Journal (SHE Journal), 2023) Mwakasangula, Eliza
    Education has been a global agenda that has been promoted by countries and different international agencies. Various countries including Tanzania have been implementing various programmes and projects to promote the education sector. Community engagement has been claimed to be vital in success of these projects. However, factors promoting community engagement and methods used to engage community members in education projects in Tanzania have not been well captured in the literature. Social capital theory was used to guide the study. Data was collected from Changarawe village in Morogoro. The study used a descriptive research design. Qualitative approach was used to collect data from 14 respondents by using interviews and focus group discussion as tools of data collection. Purposive sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 14 participants for interviews and 9 participants for focus group discussions which made a sample size of 23 for the study. Thematic analysis was used to analyze collected data. The study found community engagement is enhanced to the large extent by leaders in the study area. Moreover, significance of the projects was found to play an important role in enhancing community engagement. Various methods of engaging community members were found through five major themes which are village meetings, sports and games, social media networks, phone calls and door-to-door. The study recommends community members to be engaged throughout the project cycle and multiple methods of engaging the community has to be used to increase level of community engagement in education and other related development projects.
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    Factors affecting women in acquiring leadership positions in workplaces: A human resource management perspective
    (2023) Mwita, Kelvin M; Mwakasangula, E
    Under-representation of women in leadership positions in the corporate world has been a global concern. Scholars have explored many institutional barriers that women face in climbing the career ladder with limited studies assessing HR related factors. This study intended to assess HR related factors that affect women progressing to leadership positions in organizations, with specific reference to Tanzania. Guided by qualitative approach and human capital theory, the study involved semi-structured interviews to collect data from eight (8) respondents who were sampled by using a purposive sampling technique. The sample included female leaders and HR practitioners from seven (7) organizations in Tanzania. Thematic data analysis was employed. The study found that HR practices play a vital role in enhancing or limiting the number of female employees who reach leadership positions. The study recommends that organizations put in place fair and objective hiring systems that create fair grounds for both male and female employees. Training and development opportunities should be fairly distributed to both female and male employees with consideration that women play multiple leadership roles at home and at work as well. Organizations should consider employee promotion based on merit. Government, through its various agencies, should put in place measures that intend to control practices that discriminate against women, and hinder them from enjoying equal opportunities available at their workplaces.
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    Relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction in Tanzania public sector
    (2021) Mwakasangula, Eliza; Mwita, Kelvin M
    Tanzania public sector has been undergoing various reforms to improve public service delivery and employee satisfaction. The government has been trying to improve employee welfare and create conducive work environment for the public servants. Despite the efforts, job satisfaction levels of staff in the Tanzania public sector are generally low and unsatisfactory. The study examined the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction in Tanzania public sector. The study intended to achieve two specific objectives. The first objective was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership style and employee job satisfaction. The second objective was to examine the relationship between transactional leadership style and employee job satisfaction. The study used Morogoro Municipal Council as a case study from which data were collected by using a close ended questionnaire from 92 respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. The study found that job satisfaction was average among the respondents with mean value of 3.04. Comparatively, transactional leadership mean value was higher (Mean=4.14) than that of transformational leadership (mean=3.28). Regression analysis showed that both transactional leadership style (β=0.585, p=0.000) and transformational leadership (β=0.032, p=0.001) were found to be significant predictors of job satisfaction. The results showed that transformational leadership style had a stronger relationship with job satisfaction than transformational leadership style
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    The role of green human resource management practices on environmental management in Tanzanian industries: Lessons from Mohammed enterprises Tanzania limited
    (Science Journal of Business and Management, 2020) Mwita, Kelvin Magoko; Mwakasangula, Eliza
    In the last few years, global concerns have increased regarding environmental issues. These concerns generated more pressure and necessitated businesses and industries to develop and use green management by adopting green practices and products. Green HRM practices have emerged to be one of effective management initiatives in environmental management. Tanzania intends to be a semi-industrialized country and the government has been showing recommendable efforts to ensure that the goal is successfully achieved. In considering industrialization process in Tanzania there is a need to look for best practices in dealing with the side effects of industrialization to ensure that the process does not only benefit the economy but also protects the planet earth. This study used a case study design to learn how industries use Green HRM practices to ensure that their operations do not lead to environmental degradation. The study found that green recruitment and selection, green training, green performance management and green rewards management are essential in environmental management. The study recommends industries to formalize and adopt green human resource management practices in order to increase environmental management performance for successful industrialization of the Tanzania economy.
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    The challenges facing bottom up planning process in Korogwe town council in Tanzania
    (Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 2018) Mwakasangula, Eliza; Tefurukwa, W. Oscar
    This paper focuses on the main challenges facing participation in the bottom up planning processes at Korogwe Town Council (KTC). The study used 329 respondents and employed interviews, informal discussion, observation, and documentary reviews to gather data. Mainly narration and content analyses were used to scrutinize all data. The findings show that there were: inadequate community participation in planning at KTC due to lack of motivation and training, shortage of staff, lack of funds, inflexibility, irresponsibility, and lack of council mechanism for participation. Consequently, there was low level of community members participating in bottom up planning process. In order to encourage more people to be part of planning process, among other things, there is need to improve (or introduce) motivation to and training of community members, leaders and officers for effective bottom up participation participate.
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    The influence of training and development strategy on the performance of Tanzania’s local government authorities
    (Journal of Policy and Leadership (JPL), 2023) Mwakasangula, Eliza
    This study aimed to determine the effect of the Training and Development (T&D) strategy on the performance of Tanzania's Local Government Authorities (LGAs). The adoption of training and development strategies in LGAs gained momentum during decentralization by devolution, which aimed to empower LGAs to train and develop their personnel. The study was carried out in ten (10) LGAs found in three regions and used a survey design to collect data from a sample of 59 respondents through questionnaires and interviews. The results showed that T&D strategy had a significant influence on LGA performance, with 25.3 per cent of performance being attributed to T&D while 74.7 per cent was attributed to other factors. Also, the coefficient of determination (𝑅2 = 0.253) at the alpha of 0.05 implies that 25.3 per cent of the variation in the Performance of Tanzania’s LGAs is contributed by T and D strategy and 74.7 per cent is explained by other factors which were not considered in this study. The study concludes that T&D plays a significant role in improving performance in Tanzania's LGAs and that appropriate training programs informed by Training Needs Assessment (TNA) are crucial for workforce commitment and performance.
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    The influence of financial resources on the implementation of strategic plans in Tanzania’s local government authorities: A survey of selected LGAs in Morogoro Region
    (Journal of Policy and Leadership (JPL), 2023) Kaniki,Tabia Hassan; Mwakasangula, Eliza; Shilingi, Venance
    Financial resources are critical to the successful implementation of strategic plans in Local Government Authorities (LGAs). This study aimed to investigate the influence of financial resources on the implementation of strategic plans in selected LGAs in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. The study was underpinned by the resource-based view theory and pragmatic research philosophy. The study employed a mixed research approach, using an explanatory sequential design with quantitative data exceeding qualitative data. The study sample size was 204, drawn from a target population of 860 employees in all five LGAs. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews, and qualitative and quantitative data were analysed thematically and through descriptive and inferential statistical analyses respectively. The findings revealed that financial resources had a statistically significant weak positive relationship with the implementation of strategic plans in LGAs and only 8.3 per cent of the variations on the implementation of strategic plans are contributed by all predictors namely financial capacity, adequate budget, timely disbursement, fund utilization). Thus, other factors which were not included in this study contribute about 81.7per cent to the implementation of strategic plans of Tanzania's LGAs in the Morogoro Region. The study concludes that financial resources have a small contribution to the timely execution of strategic plans in LGAs and recommends that enough fund
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    Street-level bureaucrats and service delivery in selected LGAs in Tanzania: Copying with restraints of health and education services
    (Journal of Policy and Leadership (JPL), 2022) Kamugisha, Denis; Mwakasangula, Eliza
    This paper examines the manner street-level bureaucrats (agents) interact with the principal (government, citizens, etc.) in the regular course of their jobs to deliver services particularly health and education as informed by agent theory. Although service delivery involves numerous actors, the role of street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) cannot be underrated. SLBs are government employees, teachers and health staff in this context, who are thought to exhibit significant independence in job decision-making, unveil potential extensive impact on clients’ lives and exercise both de jure and de facto discretion. It is believed that in the due course of rendering services, SLBs experience some difficulties like operating under scarce resources, a situation that forces SLBs to exercise their discretionary clout in dealing with service delivery restraints as a response to tenets of SLBs theory. Although the existence of aforesaid situations is not highly contested, there is not enough theoretical evidence that explains service delivery dynamics in selected LGAs and the manner SLBs exercise de jure and de facto discretion to cope with the status quo. To bridge this fissure, the qualitative approach, spatial quasi-design, semi-structured interviews, documentary reviews and observation were accorded to gather some insights from selected areas regarding service delivery dynamics and the manner SLBs pursue their agenda mainly focusing on the delivery of aforesaid services. Study findings revealed that service delivery in selected LGAs is at a snail’s pace due to several restraints and that in the due course of their operations, SLBs devise some mechanisms to cope with service delivery restraints regardless of whether SLBs interface leads to either positive or negative outcomes.
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    A scientometric analysis of entrepreneurship research in the age of COVID-19 pandemic
    (Future Business Journal, 2023) Lwesya, Francis; Mwakasangula, Eliza
    This article conducted a scientometric analysis of entrepreneurship research during the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. The results show that the research focused on four thematic research clusters, namely (a) entrepreneurship and crisis management (b) social entrepreneurship and collaborative networks (c) entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intentions, and (d) entrepreneurship and adaptation measures to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analysis shows that while the COVID-19 pandemic has had significant negative impacts on entrepreneurship, innovation, digital transformation, resilience and adaptability, dynamic capabilities and organisational learning, collaborative networks, government support and customer-centric approaches enabled entrepreneurs to navigate the crisis. The review highlights the role of digital technologies, self-efficacy, organisational resilience, social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education in promoting small business development in the post-pandemic era.
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    Leaders’ Preparedness for Managing Technological Changes in Teaching and Learning in the Selected Tanzanian Public Universities
    (Science education Press, 2022) Landa , Elizabeth, Zhu , Chang, Sesabo, Jennifer & Mwakasangula, Eliza
    Technological changes have seemingly become inexorable rather than the exception for academic institutions. It has been argued that an organisation's ability to adapt to a changing environment depends on its preparedness for change. This article delineates the extent of preparedness for managing technological changes in teaching and learning among mid-level academic leaders (MLALs) in higher education. The survey was administered to MLALs (n=76), undergoing changes relating to the use of innovative teaching and learning technologies (ITLTs). The rating method and Yeh Index of Perception (YIP) score were used to determine the extent of preparedness for technological changes among MLALs, and it was found to be on average. The results from the ANOVA test shows there was a significant difference in the mean scores for the dimensions of preparedness for changes (p<0.05). The results conclude that preparedness for changes is determined by multi-dimension indicators as suggested by diverse managerial competences and status of readiness for changes held by MLALs. The results suggest that MLALs have a relatively low competence level for motivating the adoption and implementation of technological changes in teaching and learning. Besides, the leaders had a low belief that proposed technological changes for innovative teaching and learning were beneficial to them. These results can be used further to design the training and strategies for managing technological changes in education. Therefore, the study proposes sensitisation prior to any implementation of technological changes in education. Keywords: innovative teaching-learning technologies, preparedness for change, readiness for change, managerial competence, mid-level academic leaders