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Welcome to Mzumbe University Institutional Repository (MUIR), an open-access digital archive managed by Mzumbe University Library. We collect, organize, preserve, showcase, and share digital materials created by Mzumbe University scholarly community. Our goal is to offer free access to academic works for researchers and the general public.

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Recent Submissions

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Participation of private sector companies in emerging capital markets: A study of capital markets in Tanzania.
(Mzumbe University, 2011) Nangawe , Abbi Godfrey
This study aimed at determining factors influencing participation of private sector companies in Tanzanian emerging capital market. The study answered the question on the relationship between a company‟s going public decisions on the one hand and going public rules and regulations (which include ordinance compliance requirements, prospectus information disclosure and external monitoring and corporate governance), going public costs, company‟s confidentiality, company‟s reputation and credibility, and company‟s portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing on the other hand. The testable hypotheses were formulated as follows: (i) Going public rules and regulations are negatively associated with company‟s decision to go public; (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Going public costs are negatively associated with company‟s decision to go public; Company‟s confidentiality syndrome is negatively associated with company‟s decision to go public; Company‟s reputation and credibility is positively associated with company‟s decision to go public; and, Company‟s portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing is positively associated with company‟s decision to go public. The study adopted a survey design using a cross-sectional approach. The sample size comprised of 168 private profit making companies from three regions of Tanzania mainland, namely Arusha, Dar es Salaam, and Kilimanjaro. The three regions were selected because they account for over 61% of all private profit making and non-profit making companies in Tanzania mainland (CRE, 2007). Data analysis used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and applied a multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) model, using the ordinary least square (OLS) estimation technique. Findings of the study had mixed support for the hypotheses. Four predictor variables which slightly supported the hypotheses are: portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing; external monitoring and corporate governance; company‟s confidentiality and prospectus information disclosure requirements. Surprisingly enough, company‟s control variables did not support our hypotheses. The actual results of the study revealed that, empirical support came from company portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing, prospectus information disclosure requirements, company reputation and credibility and company confidentiality. On the other hand, results revealed there was no empirical support for going public costs, while going public ordinance compliance requirements was only slightly supported. The study recommends measures which will enhance capital markets policy interventions. First, are measures to be instituted by policy makers to increase supply of and demand for security instruments and to strengthen the regulatory operating capacity. Second, are training and research measures which will enable Capital Markets and Securities Authority (CMSA), in collaboration with Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE), training and research institutions, to develop and promote new market strategies, such as curricular programmes to enhance the public‟s awareness of capital markets. Last, but not least, the study recommends strategic measures to private sector companies which will enhance their incentives to save, and mechanisms to channel those savings into further investments. Finally, the study suggests directions for future research on capital markets participation in emerging markets and Tanzania in particular.
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Contractual arrangements and smallholder cane growers’ performance: Evidence from Kilombero and Turiani, Morogoro – Tanzania
(Mzumbe University, 2015) Nsindagi, Thobias Edward
Contract farming (CF) is widely accepted as a tool for improving performance of smallholder farmers in developing countries. In Tanzania CF has been practised in the sugar sector since 2006. However, ever since its commencement, sugarcane production trend portrays ambiguous conclusion with regard to smallholders‟ performance. Based on these trends, this study intended to examine the role of CF on performance focusing on process upgrading, profitability and income diversification in sugarcane production. The objectives were (i) to assess whether CF arrangements facilitate or obstruct farmers from upgrading their production processes, (ii) to determine the levels of efficiency of smallholder cane growers and identify factors influencing the efficiency levels, and (iii) to determine the extent of diversification among sugar cane growers and identify factors influencing diversification. Each objective had its own methodological approach. In analysing these objectives, various econometric tools were used e.g. Cobb Douglas stochastic profit function to analyse factors influencing farm profitability, and single limit Tobit regression for analysing factors influencing income diversification using a sample size of 386 respondents. The findings indicated that CF offers limited incentives and capabilities necessary for upgrading smallholder cane growers‟ processes. About 84% of cane growers affirmed that price of sugarcane, payment systems, and enforcement mechanisms were the main constraints for them to upgrade their production process. Similarly, the capability parameters such as training, extension services, input provision and access to credit were not included in the agreements and therefore cane growers‟ capabilities were adversely affected. Econometric model result indicated that, market satisfaction, a proxy for CF arrangement was not a significant determinant of farm profitability. However, descriptive statistics showed that price and payment mechanisms exhibited high profit inefficiency. This implies that market access restricts attainment of optimal farm frontier profit. Regarding input use, fertilizer was used much below the optimum amount, suggesting that there is a considerable room for input use expansion to boost productivity, and consequently, farm profitability. Tobit result indicated that land ownership, education, household size, and access to paved road were important determinants of diversification. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that access to incentive and capability variables, improved pricing and payment modalities, and access to various assets might improve performance, profitability and welfare of the sugarcane growers.
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Analysis of efficiency in public hospitals in Tanzania
(Mzumbe University, 2018) Fumbwe, Fatuma M.
For the past two decades, Tanzania has implemented various policies that aim to improve the performance of health sector and health status of every citizen. These efforts and policies had direct impact on improving health sector and achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite various efforts to improve health sector, the sector is still faced with various challenges, one among is inefficiency. The purpose of this study was to estimate efficiency of public hospitals in Tanzania for the year 2016. Specifically, the study sought to determine technical efficiency, scale efficiency and identifying factors influencing efficiency. To achieve the objectives, the study employed Data Envelopment Analysis (SFA), Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) and Tobit regression model on secondary data for the regional and district hospitals obtained from the Ministry of Health, Community, Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC). The study used medical staff and beds as input variables, and outpatients and inpatients as output variable. Results from DEA revealed that average technical efficiency of district hospitals and Regional referral hospitals was 69.3% and 90.7% respectively while findings from SFA depicted average efficiency score of 58% and 55% for Regional referral hospital and District hospitals respectively. In scale efficiency, 21.05% of District hospitals were efficient and 43.75% of Regional referral hospitals were scale efficient. On the other hand, Tobit regression results revealed that nurse, medical doctors, clinical officers and medical attendant are important factors in hospital production process, and they have influence on efficiency of public hospitals Lastly, the study concludes that Ministry of Health, Community, Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC), and other concerned ministries and stakeholders need to take measures to improve efficiency as the study depicted inefficiency in public hospitals. Estimation of efficiency in public hospitals should be conducted regularly and reallocation of resources is necessary to be done in public hospitals.
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Household behaviour towards water conservation activities in Mvomero District council, Tanzania
(Mzumbe University, 2018) Lameck, Emanuel
Water pollution in both improved and unimproved sources have become a major environmental evil in the 21 st century. Human related causes such as lack of proenvironmental behaviour and participation have further limited the access to clean water. Therefore, this study examined the households‟ behaviour towards water conservation activities in Mvomero district council by further examining the extent of households‟ participation in; costs and benefits from water conservation activities; and factors influencing households‟ water conservation behaviour. To achieve this study objective, a convergent parallel mixed method was employed to collect both qualitative and quantitative primary data from 210 households regarding their socioeconomic characteristics, their extent of participation in; as well as their perceived costs and benefits from water conservation activities. Again, aided with data transformation approach, the study employed a quantitative method of data analysis prior to presentation of findings. Our findings reveal that, majority of the households are neither aware nor participating in the few practiced water conservation activities in the study area. The Probit model shows that education level, income, participation in water conservation activities, attitude, and environmental knowledge are statistically significant; while gender, household size, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and land ownership are statistically insignificant but altogether influence water conservation behaviour positively except for income. However, age, marital status, benefits, and costs from water conservation activities negatively influence water conservation behaviour, yet statistically insignificant. The results of this study reflects the lifestyle of the households in Mvomero district council, their behavioural groupings and complexity which are crucial for future policy options; and to policy makers who successfully desire to enhance water conservation behaviour to a broader community.
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The impact of government expenditure on pro poor sectors in reducing poverty: A case of Kibaha District
(Mzumbe University, 2013) Musiba, Crispin
This study examined the impact of government expenditure on pro poor sectors in reducing poverty in Kibaha district for the period of 2000 – 2009. The tool of analysis used is error correction model and pair wise granger causality to examine the impact of government expenditure on pro poor sectors for economic growth and poverty reduction. Tanzania has been characterized by increased public expenditure on pro poor sectors yet, it is experiencing an economic activity and pro poor growth been shrinking. For example, inflation has fallen from 30% in 1995 to 4.4% in 2004 and GDP grew at 5.2% in 2004, up from 2.6% in 1995. Despite these achievements, the decline in poverty has been only 3% during the 1990s (from 39 to 36%). The main objective of this study is to analysis the impact of government expenditure on pro-poor sectors in reducing poverty in Kibaha district. Pro poor sectors mentioned in this study are agriculture, health, education and roads. This study carried out statistical examinations to ensure the data was valid and reliable. Therefore, data diagnostics (stationery and unusual data) and good-fit model specification test (time series properties, normality test, unit root test, autocorrelation test, and cointegration test) were established. The study indicated that cointegration exist only when Per Capital Income (PCI) act as dependent variable. A long run relationship exists among PCI, road, health, education and agriculture expenditure in Kibaha district. The result for causality shows that government health expenditure granger causes per capital income and the causality runs from health expenditure to per capital income. Moreover, the result shows that on average, government expenditure on education have a positive significant effect on per capita income in Kibaha district. Others, government expenditure on agriculture and roads have positive relationship on per capita income and insignificant. Coefficient of health government expenditure has negative insignificant relationship on per capita income. The results emphasize the importance of government prioritization on its expenditure and spend. The implications of study are to improve investment to the pro poor sectors. In the course of implementing the development of pro poor sectors and other poverty reduction policies and strategies, people need to be trained for skills necessary to cater for the changing poverty and economic environment. It is recognized that, the success of poverty reduction policy depends on among others, well-developed human resources base.