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Welcome to Mzumbe University Institutional Repository (MUIR), an open-access digital archive managed by Mzumbe University Library. We collect, organize, preserve, showcase, and share digital materials created by Mzumbe University scholarly community. Our goal is to offer free access to academic works for researchers and the general public.

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Recent Submissions

Agricultural financing initiatives in developing countries: Can microfinance fill the gap? The case of Iringa Rural district, Tanzania.
(Mzumbe University, 2017) Munuo, Catherine
Developing country, are suffering from financial shortage in almost all economic sectors particularly in agriculture sector. The initiatives done by the government and different donor agency to finance the farmers have not been able to cover the costs associated with agricultural activities to farmers. As the result farmers continue using tradition farming and depend on informal financial institutions to cover up their financial costs (Wenner, 2010).The informal institutions charge very high interests and often do not meet the needs of the farmers. For this case, microfinance is considered as noble substitute for informal credit and therefore regarded as a powerful instrument for poverty alleviation among the farmers who are economically active but financially constrained (Murdoch & Haley, 2002). This study presents an empirical investigation on this considerable effect of microfinance toward agriculture financial predicament. The general question that guided the study was “Can microfinance fill agriculture financial gap in developing countries" with a particular focus to Iringa rural district in Tanzania. Cross- sectional, primary data from a sample of 188 farmers was analyzed using the binary logistic regression techniques, to see if microfinance can fill agriculture financial gap or not. The study shows that; 17% of the farmers depend on informal institution and those who depend on microfinance are only 9%. The supply of microfinance credit to the farmers is very limited and it’s only 27% of the respondent, who were able to receive the same amount they applied for. Furthermore its only 41% of the whole farmers who managed to finance their agriculture cost. The odds ratio in favour of scale of the farm increases the possibility of covering financial gap as the scale of the farm decreases. Government subsidies have negative impact on possibility of microfinance to fill the financial gap where as microfinance awareness has positive influence on the possibility of microfinance to fill the gap. This study therefore contributes to the understanding of the current situation regarding agriculture finance and fills the unknown knowledge of microfinance contribution toward agriculture financing gap.
The trend of child labour and its effects on access to primary education in Masasi District
(Mzumbe University, 2017) Makandi, Herry
For many years in Tanzania, appropriate interventions for enhancing access to primary education have been limited by several factors. This study provides the profile of the trend of child labour in Masasi district and its effects on the access to primary education among the children. The study utilizes case study design under qualitative sequential quantitative mixed research approach basing on interpretive philosophical lens. The survey involves four ward of Masasi district in which seventy-three (73) out of school child labourers aged 5 -14 years were involved in a sample acquired through purposive sampling. With the use of interview, questionnaire, observation and document analysis the findings revealed that child labour in Masasi district has been less considered by the surrounding community as a problem. Lower income of the parents has been identified as the major factor fueling child labour in the district whereby children have to work to meet their own needs and the family’s. Yet, child labour leads to massive dropouts among children in primary schools and cause complete failure of enrolment to some other children. Understanding that the problem can be reduced, the framework to address how to curb child labour has been proposed. Data analysis employed SPSS computer software version 16.0 and Microsoft Office Excel in analysing quantitative data. Also there was the use of content analysis in the analysis of qualitative.
Socio-economic determinants of blood donation in Tanzania: A case of Morogoro Municipality
(Mzumbe University, 2017) Mramba, Ernest Lawrence
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of socio-economic determinants on blood donation in Tanzania, a case of Morogoro Municipality. The specific objectives were (i) to determine the effect of social factors on blood donation, specifically age, sex, level of education, health status, cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, fear for HIV test results and social network at community level and (ii) to examine the effect of economic factors on blood donation specifically income level, employment status, and health insurance. The study involved a sample of 128 respondents. The descriptive findings on blood donation found that, only 33 (26%) of out of 128 respondents had donated blood while 95(74%) out of 128 had never donated blood in their life. The logistic regression results showed sex (i.e. male), level of education (i.e. higher level of education) and religious beliefs (i.e. religious commitments) were positively related with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level, respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status (. i.e. high sickness frequency), cultural beliefs (. i.e. cultural restrictions), fear for HIV test results, and health insurance (i.e. insured) were negatively related with blood donation at 1%, 5%, 10%, 1% level with p values of 0.000, 0.011, 0.070, 0.012, respectively, as per assumption. However, age, strong social network at community level, employment status, and level of income were not significant factors. Conclusively, blood donation was largely determined by sex, level of education, health status, cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, fear for HIV test results and health insurance. To increase blood donation, females must be encouraged, emphasis on education, eradication of the myths and misconception about blood donation, partnerships between national blood transfusion and religious bodies, need for more community’s awareness about blood donation so as to alleviate unfounded fear (i.e. fear for HIV test results), need of improving health status of the people and donor recruitments programs strategies must be improved.
Assessment of teachers’ and parents’ role in promoting students’ discipline in community secondary schools in tanzania: A case of selected schools in Kilosa District
(Mzumbe University, 2016) Kadama , Daniel L.
The study aimed at assessing the teachers‟ and parents‟ role in promoting students‟ discipline in community secondary schools. Specific objectives were: to explore the status of discipline in community secondary schools; to identify the measures taken by teachers to promote students‟ discipline in schools; to find out the measures taken by parents to ensure students”/children’s discipline is promoted both at home and at school; to explore the collaboration between teachers and parents in promoting students‟ discipline; to investigate the challenges that teachers encounter when they deal with students‟ indiscipline; and lastly, to investigate the challenges that parents encounter when they deal with students‟ indiscipline. The study was guided by behaviour modification theory which emphasized the ways parents and teachers can apply to make students behave well in classrooms and at home. The study employed case study design adopting a qualitative approach holistically. It was carried out in some selected secondary schools in Kilosa district with a population of teachers and students‟ parents. The sample size of the study was sixty; thirty teachers and thirty parents. The sampling technique was purposive as only the teachers and parents were to be included in the study. Data collection methods included interviewing, focus group discussion and documentary review of letters, reports and rules and regulations as instruments. Findings revealed that the status of discipline in community secondary schools is bad. Many students engage in unsafe sexual relations, truancy, disrespect and wearing improper school uniforms. All these are acts of indiscipline. Collaboration between teachers and students‟ parents is not strong; it needs to be strengthened. Teachers and parents strive to take necessary measures to rescue students from immorality. The task of dealing with students‟ indiscipline is still very challenging to both teachers and parents. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and students‟ parents should have strong and maximum cooperation to help to promote students‟ discipline. Teachers should become students‟ role models and also need to apply guidance and counseling to undisciplined students.
Rural-out migration as a livelihood diversification strategy to rural households: A study of Makete and Iringa Rural districts, Tanzania
(Mzumbe University, 0201) Rwechungura, Fred Alfred
This study assessed whether rural-out migration as a livelihood strategy enhanced livelihoods of rural households in Iringa region. The objectives were, to establish how dependent households were on diversified livelihood portfolios, what the determinants for rural-out migration were, and outcomes of rural-out migration and remittances from it to household assets. The study used cross-sectional data involving 272 migrant and non-migrant households. Findings revealed that out of 272 households, 93(34%) had out-migrants. Additionally, all 272 households were dependent on diversified livelihood portfolios, with agriculture dominating, followed by non-farm activities. However, in ranking these portfolios, migration came eighth out of nine listed activities, suggesting it was not a valued source of livelihood. At household level, the following variables were significant and positively associated with rural-out migration: household size, age of household head, and the marital status of head of household. At societal level, lack of job opportunities such as non-farm self-employment, casual labour, and working in enterprises; and poor or lack of infrastructures and /or utilities such as water dams, irrigation schemes, electricity, and markets/market places accounted for rural-out migration. On the outcomes of migration to the households’ assets, migration did not have any significance to the households; instead it had more detrimental outcomes, including withdrawal of productive human resource from community; family abandonment; erosion of morals; spread of HIV/AIDS; increasing number of vulnerable children; and school drop-out. The main conclusion from these findings is that unlike what many studies had found (in other countries), out-migration did not have better outcomes to the livelihoods of rural households in the studied districts. The policy implication of these findings is that unless rural livelihood is improved, rural-out migration will continue, as rural dwellers continue searching for ‘greener pastures.’ As this continues, poverty is perpetuated. Consequently, not only will this affect urban and other economically vibrant areas where migrants continue flocking to by saturating these destinations’ capacity to handle the migrants, but it will also affect poor rural areas negatively by draining their energetic and productive human resource. On this basis, the need to promote rural livelihood diversification by breaking the cycle of poverty through development of correct policies on human capital, infrastructure and utilities, credit provision, and enabling environments for grassroots initiatives is imperative. Likewise, adopting social protection approach, market-based approach, labour union approach, and rehabilitation approach could be steps in the right direction towards addressing problems associated with rural-out migration.