ItemMaternal health care utilizationand its socio-economic implications in Tanzania: A study of Ilembo and Masoko wards in Mbeya district(Mzumbe University, 2016) Maguja NestoryThis study examined the socio-economic implications of Maternal Health Care in Tanzania using Masoko and Ilembo wards as a case study. The specific questions were (a) To what extent does maternal health care utilization affect household production in Tanzania? (b) To what degree does maternal health care utilization affect the healthy days of maternal mothers in Tanzania? (c)To what level does maternal health care utilization reduce vulnerability to diseases of maternal mothers in Tanzania? (d)To what extent does maternal health care utilization affect the health expenditure of the Tanzanians? The random probability sampling technique chose a sample size of 143 respondents. The findings show that most respondents (64%) made one to three antenatal Care visits, while 36% made the required number of four and above antenatal care clinic visits. Based on these data, it can be confirmed that the utilization is low. The findings also show that the maternal mother’s age, distance, lack of education, and income level were reasons for the low utilization of maternal health services. On the socio-economic effects, the results showed that respondents with higher antenatal care visit majority 76.7% of them earned more than 500,000Tzs per year compared to 23.3% with lower antenatal care visits (p=0.0005). Furthermore, among respondents with higher antenatal care clinic visits, only 7.6% were unhealthy for more than 40 days per year compared to 92.4% with lower antenatal care clinic visits (p= 0.0005). In respondents with higher antenatal care clinic visits, only 17.9% were vulnerable to hemorrhage, puerial-sepsis, eclampsia, and anemia compared to 82.1% with lower antenatal care clinic visits (p=0.0005). 91.4% of respondents with lower antenatal care visits spent more than 100,000Tzs on health problems compared to only 8.6% with higher antenatal care visits (p=0.0005). Increase of health facilities Availability and provision of maternal health knowledge were some of the study's policy recommendations. ItemDeterminants of interest rate spread in commercial banks: A case study of selected local and foreign banks in Tanzania(Mzumbe University, 2013) Aikoh, Kenedy J.The behaviour of interest rate spread in Tanzania for a very long period of time has been strong, high and persistently showing little signs of narrowing. When compared with other East African countries, the interest rate spread in Tanzania seems to be the highest. It is this persistent and low narrowing trend of the interest rate spread which gave rise to the need of studying the factors which cause high interest rate spread in commercial banks in Tanzania. The overall objective of this study was to identify the Determinant of interest rate spread in commercial banks in Tanzania and compare the interest rate spread between the selected banks. The determinants were ascertained from a review of previous literatures. Related parameters from the selected determinants were studied for the chosen banks for the period between 2006 and 2012, a period after adoption of market determined interest rate regime. The study based on the secondary data from 28 quarters of published quarterly reports of the selected commercial banks and Bank of Tanzania quarterly economic bulletin publications. Multiple regressions were applied to establish relationship between the dependent variable, interest rate spread and the chosen independent variables which were non-interest income, provision for loan losses, non-performing loans, non-interest expenses, gross domestic product rate, treasury bills rate and inflation. The results from the study indicate that the key determinants of interest rate spread for the selected commercial banks are the treasury bills rate, TBillrate; Real GDP rate, Non-interest income, NII; Provision for loan losses, PLL and Non-performing loans, NPL. The results also show that the interest rate spread for the selected local commercial bank is higher than that of the selected foreign commercial bank. The policy implication from the study is that the high responsiveness of commercial banks spread to the treasury bills and real GDP rate needs to be regulated. This study can be extended by exploring the impact of financial sector development on interest rate spreads in commercial banking system.