Dissertations (Masters)

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Welcome to the Department of Accounting and Finance collection, dedicated to archiving and showcasing dissertations authored by esteemed members of our academic community, including both faculty and students in the School of Business (SoB).

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    Constraints facing small and medium enterpresses towards tax payment in local government authorities a case study of Kilwa District Council
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Machela, Ally Hamu
    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are unique phenomena for the tax system, besides the wage earners, who are only subjected to income tax withholding; they form the bulk of taxpayers in the tax net. At the same time small businesses are the major contributors to the informal economy resisting tax payment and operating outside the tax net. This study aims at evaluating the SMEs constraints towards tax payment in local government authorities. In order to carryout out this study, the researcher used a case study design, where Kilwa district council was chosen because is familiar place by the researcher as an employee of the district council hence easy of getting required information. The researcher collected two types of data, the primary data and the secondary data. Primary data were collected through questionnaire, interview and observation while secondary data were collected through documentary review. All data were analyzed and presented in tables and figures with the help of descriptive analysis under SPSS. The findings show that SMEs feel they pay high tax rates regardless of their business size and receive a little return on the tax paid. This has impacted on their willingness to pay taxes and contributes to eroding people’s trust in the local government’s capacity to provide the expected services. Moreover, the lack of confidence on the use of government money and the methods and procedures taxes are collected affect SMEs’ perceptions towards taxation. Uncompromising and nontransparent approaches to collect taxes, fees which are also many, may actually foster tax evasion and disrespect of tax laws. The study therefore concludes that it is imperative to establish mechanisms for improving relations between the local revenue collection and the taxpayers (SMEs). Relevant measures are establishing more accessible and transparent payment facilities, certainty of tax payment dates and use fair and reasonable tax enforcement.
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    The impact of financing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) on improving the living standard: A case study Chato District
    (Mzumbe University, 2014) Kileka, Mussa M.
    This study explored the impact of financing SMEs clients on improving the standard of living at Chato District in Geita. Since SME is the general term use for micro, small, medium and large enterprises, the study was only concentrated on the micro and small businesses that are mostly being financed by the NMB PLC. This study aimed at investigating the impact of the loan received by SMEs clients on improving the standard of living at Chato and see whether the loan given to these SMEs clients have real contributed in the improving standard of living. The general objective of the study was to find the impact of loans granted to the micro and small business owners on improving standard of living in terms of business expansion, employment and employment expansion, increase assets ownership, income level and acquisition of basic needs. Specifically the study ought to identify loan disbursement trend between 2010 -2012, to identify and characterize the employment trend for the micro and small business at Chato District that benefited from the NMB PLC Chato Branch loans, to identify the impact of loans given the small and micro business owners in improving the standard of living, while the last objective was to examine the challenges faced by the small and medium enterprises when struggling to expand their businesses. The study design was a diagnostic study with the sampling techniques being systematic random sampling. The findings of the study showed that, bank loans help to improve the standard of living because they contribute into business growth and expansion, hence employment, since employment is a source of income. Whoever is employed then he/she earnso income and with that income will increase wealth (wealth in various forms) thus controlling income poverty. The study recommendations are directed to the government insisting on providing a conducive environment for micro and small business people, providing training and entrepreneurial skills to the business owners since most of them are at the primary and ordinary level of education. To the NMB PLC Management and other financial institutions should provide financial assistance to the SMEs with reasonable and affordable interest rate. However, loan bureaucracy should be reduced and if possible, completely eradicated and provide them with loans on time as needed with no reasonable delays.
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    The performance of outsourced revenue collection system in local government authorities case study of Kasulu District Council.
    (MzumbeUniversity, 2013) Mabhuye, Paul Paschal
    The general objective of the research was to assess the performance of outsourced revenue collection in LGA Kasulu District council as the case study. The key findings of this dissertation were, that the council has been able to collect revenue from own sources in moment in time by an average percentage of 0.97% or 0.97 annually. This means that, some agencies were not complying with their contract signed between the agencies and the council. Also another finding was that the performance in revenue collection of market due dropped by average of 47.6% while the performance of the forest fee levy has increased by an average percentage of 17%.Also the performance of market stall rent has increased by average percentage of 3%. The achievement to collect about 97% revenue from own source was due to the effort done by finance department to make strong follow up as well as the strong terms of the agreement as found in the legal contracts between the Agencies and Council. And 3% difference was due to weak adherence by the agencies to the terms of agreements and contracts signed. The key recommendation emanating from the above findings were, that the council should build an abattoir and cow action mart to add more revenues and to increase council revenue collection in which this option has multiple effects of supporting animal activities and improving famer‟s income together with health to people. In order to minimize the risk of giving the contract to incompetent and dishonest agents who fail to submit revenue collected at time, the council management should give the contracts or terms of agreements to agents with enough experience, and also the augends should have required and recommended collaterals. Since the council has enough number of revenue sources which has not outsourced and which can perform well if they are outsourced. I recommend new revenue sources such as parking fees for bicycles, fee for Lorries in transit parking in towns and also the council should opt to make investment in government shares and treasury bonds and also LPF. The general research method employed to achieve this dissertation at the whole period of study were questionnaire ,personal observation together with documentary review as the major method of research data collection approach used.
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    The influence of credit accessibility on smallholder rice farmers’ performance in Tanzania: A case of Mbarali District
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Maduhu, Marco
    Tanzania had been implementing Public Procurement Reforms with the aim of promoting value for money in procurement and contracts management. Donors, taxpayers and other stakeholders expect positive results from these reforms by increasing transparency, fairness, accountability and compliance of laws in Public Procurement. Though, procurement systems are strongly regulated, their implementations rarely assure attainment of value for money in construction projects. This study was aimed in assessing factors affecting achievement of value for money in construction projects implemented by Regional Secretariats and giving recommendations on how they can be resolved. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this research. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews observation and documentary review. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel packages were used in data analysis. The analyzed data are presented in the form of tables, bar charts, pie charts, percentage distribution and linear charts. Construction projects in Tabora Regional Secretariat were noted being facing challenges like unrealistic budget and cash flow, delaying, poor quality, cost overrunning, incompetent contractors and weak consultancy services. The community was not fully involved in development projects; this resulted in poor ownership of the projects when handled over to the community. For attaining the "Big Results Now" the Government is urged to widen Tax base for the Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA) to collect more revenue from taxes, so as to enable the Government to finance development projects effectively without depending on donors; Prioritize few projects which can be financed fully, implemented effectively and produce intended output within a short time; and promote stakeholders‟ involvement in planning, monitoring and evaluation of projects for creating sense of ownership, transparency and accountability of the Government to taxpayers.
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    Corporate social responsibility and firms’ financial performance: The case of Tanfoam and Zantel in Arusha
    (Mzumbe University, 2014) Baraza, Mohammed S.
    The field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown exponentially over years. There are different views of the role of the firm in society and disagreement as to whether wealth maximization should be the sole goal of a corporation. This study focused on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firms’ financial performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of corporate social responsibilities on financial performance of the firms. Specifically, the study aimed to find out the reasons for the companies to engage in corporate social responsibility, to explore types of corporate social responsibilities which are more practiced by the firms and lastly to examine relationship between corporate social responsibilities and firms’ financial performance. The study adopted a case study research design where Zantel and Tanfoam Ltd located at Arusha were selected as units of analysis. Primary data were collected through questionnaire and documentary source such as journals, books and various organization reports for secondary information. A total of 42 respondents were used. With the help of computer software programme called Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0, data collected were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively using percentages, mean weight and frequencies followed by interpretation, comparison and explanation from cross tabulation, charts and figures The outcome of the study indicated that the motives to engage in CSR included preserving reputation, employee motivation and give profit back to society. Philanthropic was the main type of CSR mostly practiced. The relationship between CSR and financial performance indicated that companies practicing CSR increased financial performance. Eventually, the study recommends that companies may promote sales, expand the branches in the region which will result into increased amount of profit hence uplift the amount of percentage to be allocated to CSR. Also the researcher suggests that a longitudinal study may be adopted in providing deeper insight into the relationship between CSR and financial performance.
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    Impact of public private partnership in revenue collection efficiency: A case of selected districts; Kwimba, Misungwi and Ilemela.
    (Mzumbe Unversity, 2015) Julius, Paul
    The findings revealed that the main factor which affects PPP revenue collection performance in Ilemela, Misungwi and Kwimba Districts was monitoring of agents. The Researcher found that there was an increase in revenue after PPP on revenue collection since collections were above 60% as 2013/2014 budget illustrates. The adoption of fiscal decentralisation in Tanzania many local governments involved in the collection of taxes using public servants. However, they further observed that due to the increasing appetite for tax base expansions and outsourcing of tax collection, private tax collection or tax farming was adopted as an innovation. Private revenue collection is credited for its direct advantage of reducing operation and administrative costs that would otherwise be spent on revenue collectors and the whole collection process. The impact of PPP could be witnessed by a relative increase in the current turnover from the privatized portfolios. This indeed points to many things but it also reveals that there was no room for revenue losses in such practices as tax evasion. The study found that local government authorities have increased revenue collected. The study noted that there is a close relationship between revenue collectors and performance. Much as most important local tax includes the property tax, the authorities that provide a basis for health and reliable collection. The local authorities were reluctant to apply knowledge about implementation. It became difficult for them to have control over revenue from both external sources and the locally raised revenues. Thus they bring efforts together to bring the efficiency in collection methods. It‟s true that, many districts have managed to collect revenues efficiently due proper relationship between these agents of the economy.
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    Contribution of microfinance on the growth of microenterprises: The case of Tanga city council
    (Mzumbe University, 2014) Masele, Kishosha
    Microfinance institutions can enable the poor to smooth their consumptions, manage their risks better, build their assets gradually, develop their micro enterprises, enhance their income earnings capacity, and enjoy an improved quality of life. The objective of this study was to access the extent to which microfinance institutions contributes on the growth of microenterprises in Tanga city council. Specific objectives that guided the study were to assess which sectors of microenterprises uses microfinance loans in Tanga city council for the period of 2012 to 2014; to assess the relationship between microfinance loans and the growth of microenterprises in Tanga city council; and to assess factors determining sustainability of access to microfinance in Tanga city council. The study was a diagnostic as it was looking to demonstrate a causative relationship between financing and the growth of microenterprises. The population of the study was microfinance officers and their clients (micro entrepreneurs).The study used stratified random sampling for microfinance clients and census for microfinance officers for sampling procedures. A cross sectional survey research design involved the use of interview, telephones and questionnaires research tools to a sample of 112 respondents in qualitative and quantitative data collections techniques from both microfinance and their clients. The result findings on the sectors of microenterprises that use microfinance loans in Tanga city council for the period of 2012 to 2014 were that, small retail trade sector scored by 97% on average, followed by food vendor sectors which showed a uses of 90%, fishing and livestock sector which showed a 84% while the agricultural sector also showed a 84%.This indicates that these sectors uses microfinance loans in a high percent for the growth of their microenterprises. Based on the relationship between microfinance loans and the growth of microenterprises in Tanga city council for the period of 2012 to 2014,the study findings revealed that there is a linear correlation between the variables like sales/profit, employment and assets against the loans. By applying the correlation analysis model, the results showed that sales/profit against loans is 0.9360 or 93.6%, employments against loans are 0.8506 and assets are 0.8865. vii Factors that determining sustainability access of microfinance loans in Tanga city council for the period of 2012 to 2014, study findings revealed that small loans disbursed to clients or members attributed to 72% to access to MFI’s.Small loans are inadequate for business start up or expansions hence made them to keep up accessing loans so as to reach their target goals. Another sustainability factor was repayment period whereby short term loans have short repayment period with no grace period. Therefore this factor compels clients or members to keep up being active members to MFI’s so as to access loans for their business.65% of respondents agreed with this factor as an attributing cause to sustainability access to microfinance. Economic instability was a third factor mentioned by respondents, most families are not financially viable hence tend to seek MFI’s loans to empower themselves. The study findings revealed that 89% of respondents agreed on this as a causing factor. 76% of respondents indicated that investment diversity as a factor that determining sustainability access to microfinance loans in Tanga city council. Furthermore, the drop out level showed an average of 8.4% for 2012,8.6% for 2013 and 7.6% on 2014 indicating that there is drop out level of members from MFI’s.Also graduating members from MFI’s is as follows,6% on 2012,6% in 2013 and 5% in 2014 indicating that there are members who graduated from MFI’s although both in a very small percent. The study recommends that regarding the issue of small loans, the microfinance should be flexible by raising the minimum base to reflect changes in the value for money over time, interest rate should be lowered to level that would cover micro enterprises operating expenses and facilitating the growth of the clients business, payment period should be reversed in both MFI’s by considering more grace periods and nature of business of the microenterprises. The government should look into revising the microfinance policy of 2000 so as to enable clients or members of these MFI’s to borrow an amount of money that can be enough to start up business expansion rather than borrowing the same on stages which actually takes long time to reach the intended loans. The MFI’s should revised carefully on their loan policies so that graduating members should increase meaning that the loans provided has successfully improved their capital and business expansions
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    Factors affecting loan performance: A case study of CRDB Bank Plc in Mwanza Region
    (Mzumbe University, 2014) Gilbert, Happy
    The research was carried out to study the factors affecting loan performance in financial institutions in Tanzania, specifically, the researcher sought to establish the effects of collection policy, credit terms, client appraisal and credit risk. A case study of CRDB bank in Mwanza region. This study used data collected from both primary and secondary data source. The methods of data collection used were interview, observation, questionnaires, and documentary review that were used to analyze data from purposive and simple random sampling of 30 sample sizes. The interpretation of data collected was analyzed by using a computer program known as program of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The main variables taken into consideration were credit terms, collection policy, client appraisal and credit terms. The researcher adopted qualitative and quantitative research designs. The respondents were the CRDB bank staff and the bank borrowers of Mwanza region. Collection policy and credit terms were found to have a high statistical significance with loan performance of a financial institution. Further research is recommended on the effects of customer training in loan performance, assessment of the effects of economic downturn in loan performance, and other factors that affects loan performance in financial institutions such as political consideration, environmental and prevailing economic change
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    Effect of share split on the shareholders’ wealth; A case of the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE)
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Rosemary, Luena
    The study aimed at analysis the effects of share split on the shareholders’ wealth; a case of Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE). In attaining this, four specific objectives were set ascertained; to explore reasons for share split, to determine whether price of split share follow any definite identifiable pattern, to analyze pros and cons pertaining to share split, and to assess the effect of share split on return to shareholders. The study deployed a case study research design and conducted at the DSE where attained 94 percent response rate as 13 respondents were from DSE Staff, 8 respondents from Licensed Brokers and 96 respondents from Shareholders. Again, purposive and snowball sampling techniques were deployed in getting data from a total sample size of 117 respondents. As far as research findings is concerned, the study attained fully its specific objectives that revealed reasons for share split as psychological, increasing stock liquidity, withdraw of principal investor and speculative factors. Likewise, pros and cons pertaining to share split found to be price affordability, wider ownership base, fulfilling investors’ expectation, strengthening company’s image and rival competition. Among the cons included some investors perceive split share as cheap, cost of split, listing requirements and split shares being prone to unwanted investors. Moreover, the study recommended principal investors to think critically before deciding to withdraw their shares as would sometimes affect the general conduct of investing companies, while effectiveness of the Tanzania capital market was suggested as area for future study.
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    A poor collection of property tax: A case of Mtwara Mikindani Municipal Council
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Mgema, Zephania Stephano
    The main objective of the study is to assess modalities /systems used in the valuation, billing and collection of property tax to LGAs with particular reference to Mtwara Mikindani Municipal council. Property taxation is one of the most lucrative and promising, yet least tapped, sources of tax revenue to support urban government in Africa. Property taxation plays a major role in financing local governments throughout the world In this study, The Mtwara Mikindani Municipal Council was the main unit of inquiry from which a sample of respondents were drawn. The sub-unit of enquiry were individuals whom selection was influenced by their knowledge and experience on property tax. The level of services provided by a local authority to its residents could be an incentive for the latter to pay tax in a given period. This research made an investigation on the level of public services provided by council to the property owner and other people in the locality. Investigation of this study revealed that there is little relationship between the tax levied and the services provided by the council such as refuse collection, maintenance of roads and sewerage systems and streetlights and the majority of the people are not satisfied Several factors have been identified for this state of affairs in this study. Among them, absence of property valuation, poor system of notification of tax payments, failure to take legal action against defaulters, lack of tax education and provision of inadequate quality services to the council Residents. The Municipal needs to take appropriate measures to address these issues. Motivation to the tax collector and accounts department staff dealing with collection of property tax is very important, Failure to take legal action against defaulters was found to be one of the problems facing the council, tax awareness campaigns through newspapers, Television and Radio programs, Posters, advertisements, Seminars etc to educate taxpayers and local politicians especially councillors on the rationale and procedure for the property tax. Education efforts could increase the awareness of ratepayers and thus allow council to collect rates more easily.
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    The contribution of micro finance institutions to the growth of Smallholder Farmers and Fishermen (SFF): A case study of selected SFF in the Pemba Island
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Mbarouk, Ali Mohamed
    Smallholder farmers and fishermen continue to fail from the problems that microfinance institutions claim to offer solutions to. According to the 2002, Population and Housing Census of Tanzania indicate that three out of five SME businesses (including smallholder farmers and fishermen (SFF)) fail within the first few months of operation. A gap exists in finding out the contribution of Microfinance institutions to the growth of SFF. The study was expected to establish the practical role of perceived solutions provided by microfinance institutions and how this contributes to the growth of smallholder farmers and fishermen (SFF)in Pemba Island. The study was guided by three major objectives; Assessing the lending technology adopted by MFIs in accessing credit services to smallholder farmers and fishermen; Determining factors that influence credit accessibility by smallholder farmers and fishermen; and Determining the challenges preventing growth of the smallholder farmers and fishermen (SFF) A survey design study was used to conduct an investigation and achieve study objectives. Data was gathered from managers of MFI institutions as well as SFF within Pemba Island in rural and urban area. Stratified sampling was adopted to select 20cooperative societies and five microfinance institutions to participate in the study. Data was collected via a questionnaire. Presentation of data was done in tables and interpretation made based on specific research objectives. The study findings indicated that the majority of the technology used is group lending technology (65.71%). Group is formed by members who know each other very well and have some social ties which act as collateral for the loans. Also microfinance institutions provide a series of products and services that influence the credit accessibility, that include having small-scale business accounts, business management training, marketing services and financial literacy skills. Out of these, small-scale business loans are the major product offered by Microfinance institutions as indicated by 37.14% of the respondents while business management skills are the least offered represented by 11.43%. This is because most of the beneficiaries (borrowers) have low income generation therefore they prefer to take small loan to enable them to repay on time and have low financial literacy. The challenges preventing SFF from growth and development are lack of enough finances, financial management skills, poor financial literacy and lack of market for products. Among these challenges, lack of finances is most common challenge preventing growth and development of their businesses. These challenges explain why some smallholder farmers and fishermen at the same level while others have scaled down their operations. The study recommends MFIs have to create environment to SFF to access individual lending by reducing some conditions such as lowering interest rate and providing uncollateralized loans. Also MFIs have to plan for seminars and workshops to train the SFF on financial literacy, management skills and facilitation of ICT use. Furthermore, MFIs should develop a regular needs assessment among SFF so as to provide relevant products. A related study can be done to analyze the economic factors affecting microfinance institutions in financing SFF.A similar study on the Contribution of Microfinance Institutions to the growth of Smallholder farmers and fishermen in other towns apart from Pemba Island can be done. It is very important to conduct the same around Zanzibar comprises both Pemba and Unguja Island.
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    Issues in procurement methods in public organizations: A case of Tanzania Aviation Authority (TAA)
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Kheri, Ashura Chimbeni
    The research is on e-procurement is the business-to-business purchase and sale of supplies and services over the Internet. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of e-procurement in Tanzania public institutions. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches qualitative approaches were used. Data collection methods used interviews, observations and documentary analysis. Research instruments to be used during data collection included interview questions, observation schedule and documentary review schedules. Collected were analyzed based on research objectives. Findings indicated that challenges that influenced the use e-procurement by TAA were: Budget and Executive support, user adoption and Supplier Buy-In and Enablement. Findings indicated that the challenge with regard to the use of e- procurement was on the side of management who sometimes resulted into the conflict of interests. It was also revealed from the study that the TAA management has a great task of ensuring that each user sees the simple to use and intuitive. Findings indicated that there were issues that underpinned the use of e-procurement by TAA. Supplier Buy-In was revealed to be among issues. Findings indicated that some of the major benefits of an e-Procurement system are punch-outs, e-Invoices and e-Payments. Associated Costs was another issue and it was noted from the study that as with any technology project, the costs go beyond just the costs. It was also revealed from the study that training costs was among issue that influenced e- procurement. Findings indicated that e-procurement tools included: Email, spread sheets and the Internet. Recommendations include the availability of quality and enough ICT facilities and equipment and the same research to be done in other public institutions to enable different researcher on the same issue to come up with similar conclusion.
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    Factors determining the growth of savings and credit co-operative’s in Tanzania: The case study of SACCOS operating in Morogoro Urban District, Morogoro region Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Kibasa, Emma M.
    The purpose of the study was to identify factors determining the growth of Savings and Credit Co-operatives (SACCOs) in Tanzania. The main objective of the study was to identify the factors determining the growth of SACCOs in Tanzania. Specific objectives were: to appraise the influence of savings culture commonly used by SACCOs, to map the effects of economic activities to SACCOs members on the growth of their cooperatives, to determine the contribution of management experience on development of SACCOs and asses the role of actual credibility offered by Financial Institutions to members on growth of their co-operatives. The study used purposive sampling techniques in choosing a sample of 60 respondents. Data were analyzed by computer software “SPSS” whereby, quantitative information was obtained by a way of tabulations and rankings polished by the use of frequencies and percentages whereas frequency tables and pie charts used to present qualitative part of the study results. Results show that: Saving culture among SACCOs‟ members prosper growth of their cooperatives – in the sense that many shares are created and hence liquidity. Economic activities also play a great role as it enables members to return both principal and interest of the loaned amount on time. Furthermore, managements experience cited as a vital factor contributing the growth of SACCOs. The findings show most members of the SACCOs are lacking knowledge on co-operatives, thus study recommends that both knowledgeable SACCOSs‟ members and Financial Institutions increase their active participation in providing education to other member of SACCOSs amid credit provision and investment opportunities, to find the way which can motivate members on saving culture, like to increase interest on saving and charge reasonable amount of interest on loans so that in turn, co-operatives flourish and survive for longer than ever.
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    The dynamic determinants of interest rates in Tanzania: A focus on inflation, money supply and exchange rates
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Kikoti, Boniface
    High interest rates prevail in developing countries including Tanzania since full implementation of financial sector reforms where interest determined by the market force have restricted the access of potential borrowers to credit markets thus reducing investments and limiting growth potentials of the economy. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic determinants of interest rates in Tanzania with a focus on inflation, money supply and exchange rates. The study used time series secondary data covering the period 1970-2013, extracted from two main sources, namely; the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and Central Bank of Tanzania (BoT), where all variables employed on the analysis are extracted. The study applied OLS, Johnsen Cointegration and VECM technique to examine the effect of Inflation Rates, Money Supply and Exchange Rates Dynamics to Interest Rates in Tanzania. Johnsen co-integration test was employed to test for existence of long run relationships between variables interest rate, inflation rate, money supply and exchange rates and the results showed the existence of long run relationship among variables and they move together and suggested to use VECM instead of VAR. Stationarity test was enhanced by the use of Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philip Perron test. The results showed that all variables exhibit unit roots at level and they became stationary after performing first difference. VECM results revealed that money supply had significant effect on interest rate and the effect of inflation rate and exchange rate dynamics to interest rate were not significant for the period under study. Therefore, in order to correct short term disequilibrium of interest rate, the government should adjust money supply. The OLS results showed that explanatory variables significantly affect interest rates but the R- square was very low for the model. Even if, only money supply seemed to have statistically significant impact on interest rate, the government should not ignore other variables such inflation rate and exchange rate because they are important in monetary policy.
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    Challenges of budgetary control system and its impact in management performance in local government authorities in Tanzania: Case study of Kisarawe District Council (KDC)
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Kilangaly, Alex N.
    This study intended to assess the challenges of budgetary control system in local government authorities in Tanzania. This study was based on a survey of local government authorities in Tanzania with intention to investigate the effectiveness of budgetary control system and its impacts on organization performance. The study was conducted in coast region at Kisarawe district council. The area of study was selected for a number of reasons. First; Coast region is near to Dar es Salaam which is the commercial city of Tanzania and headquarters of local government authorities, where high level of budgets preparation methods is expected and effectective budgetary control organs are also expected to be establish. The selections also based on expertise on budgetary control system are available. Second it was assured that Kisarawe is facing more challenges on budgetary control system than any other peripheral districts. Third the area is easily accessible, from Mzumbe University- Dar es Salaam Business School, whenever additional data of the study were needed. A sample of 50 out of 185 respondents, which was 37%, was selected for the study. The study on the sample revealed that: budgets are effectively prepared, local government authorities have reasonably effective budget control but the budgetary control system used in local government authorities is effective. The study conclude that incremental budgetary control system used in local government authorities in Tanzania is ineffective; and that the local government authorities should adapt to another budgetary control system; and zero-base budgeting system is more appropriate and suitable
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    Assessing the effect of audit committee efficiency on corporate governance performance in the public sector: A case study of the government ministries in Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2014) Lyambogo, Lukoba
    The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of audit committee efficiency on corporate governance performance in the public sector: the case study being the government ministries in Tanzania 18 ministries were assessed through CAG reports of 2008 to 2012 all the finding were obtained from secondary sources such as CAG reports NAO report and other reports related to the topic under the study The findings of this study have revealed some significant relationship between audit committee efficiency and corporate governance performance. As one of the component of corporate governance, audit committees have an important role to play in promoting the corporate governance process. This is due to the fact that audit committees have been entrusted with the task of overseeing other activities e.g accounting, auditing, procurement e.t.c. This study evaluated the effect of audit committee efficiency on corporate governance performance; it was established that audit committee efficiency has a positive effect on corporate governance performance which concurs with the theoretical propositions and empirical findings from other studies.
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    The impact of working capital management on profitability of listed cement companies in Tanzania: A comparative study of Tanga Cement Company ltd and Tanzania Portland Cement Company Ltd.
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Lyimo, Evance Wiliam
    Working capital management is needed for day to day operations of a business firm. Working capital management involves administration of the most liquidity resources of the business firms which include cash and cash equivalents, inventories and trade and other receivables. Adequate management of working capital will resulted in achievement of maximum gross operating profit thus maintaining liquidity position and maximizing shareholders wealth which is the central tendency of goal of any firm. Unlikely, insufficient working capital administration will result into illiquidity due to the fact that respective company won‟t able to generate enough GOP to enhance liquidity position. Business firms required to hold appropriate working capital so as to trade-off between liquidity and bankruptcy. Companies can use working capital management as an approach or tool to influence GOP. This paper investigated the impact of working capital management on profitability of cement companies registered in Tanzania. The study based on two companies only due to the fact that at the time of conducting research there were only two listed companies. The study covers a period of 8 years from year 2006 to 2013. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regressions analyses are employed to explore the relationship between working capital components and GOP. The correlation analysis for TCCCL established that GOP is negatively related with APP against expected and ITID as expected. While correlation and multiple regression analyses found that GOP is negatively related with ACP as expected and positive related with CCC against expected. Regression for TPCCL established that GOP was negatively related with ACP as expected and positively related with ITID against expected. Also GOP positively related with APP (as expected) while negatively related with CCC (as expected). This commented that profitability of Cement Company depends on effective working capital management in order to trade off between liquidity and bankruptcy. The study is therefore recommended that for those working capital components bring unpredicted results, efficient in supervision is needed to improve. Similarly for those insignificant relationships care is required to advance from respective areas.
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    Assessment of quality of tax payers’ services on the performance of Tanzania Revenue Authority: The case of Zanzibar
    (Mzumbe University, 2014) Juma, Hassan Khamis
    The study set out to examine the relationship between the quality of tax payer’s services and performance of TRA in tax revenue Collection. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. This design was adopted so as to exhaustively study the variables within the stipulated time. The research instruments were self-administered questionnaires. Convenience sampling was used to select respondents from the sample size. The research objectives were to identify services offered to taxpayers by TRA; to assess the quality of services received by taxpayers at TRA; to assess the performance of tax revenue collections and to determine the relationship between the qualities of taxpayer services received and the performance of tax revenue collections. The study was conducted in a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional survey. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using research questionnaires and personal interviews. The research found that the performance of tax revenue collections at the TRA in Zanzibar was good for the period 2010/11 -2011/12 respectively, the quality of taxpayer services TRA provided was not good while the services quality was positively correlated and significant affect the performance of tax revenue collection. The research recommends that TRA should improve taxpayer services which is positively influenced the performance of tax revenue collections with focus on the Reliability, responsiveness, and assurance, empathy and tangibility determinants of taxpayer service quality which would raise revenue collection and increase the taxpayer’s compliance. The customer survey should introduce to find out the quality of services provided and obtain regular feedback. This would help in identify area of weakness so as to develop means for improvement.
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    Corporate social responsibility and financial performance in banking industry in Tanzania: The case of CRDB bank Mbeya branch
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Ketocho, Erasto
    The major objective of this study was to assess the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and financial performance (FP): case of CRDB bank Mbeya branch. Specific objectives for the study were; to assess CSR activities the bank offers to the community, to examine the relationship between expenditure on CSR activities and Financial Performance measured by deposits, loans & advances, pre-tax profit and after-tax profit and to identify the challenges to CSR activities. In carrying out this study, corporate social responsibility CSR spending was independent variable while dependent variables were deposits, loans & advances, pre-tax profit and after-tax profit as measure of financial performance of a bank. The study used Purposive sampling technique and Convenience sampling technique during the process of data collection from the study respondents of which a sample of 120 respondents was selected. Data were collected using both Primary and Secondary sources (documentary review and questionnaires). Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze data where statistical tools applied were correlation analysis, percentages and trend analysis. The data were analyzed and results indicated that; there are different types of CSR activities the bank is providing to the community in Mbeya city and that there was intercorrelation between independent variable CSR spending/expenses and dependent variables (bank deposits, loans & advances, pre-tax profit and after-tax profit) at CRDB Mbeya branch. The study concluded that since the independent variable (CSR spending) found to be highly correlated to dependent variables (bank deposits, loans & advances, pre-tax profit and after-tax profit), then CSR activities is positively related with financial performance of CRDB Mbeya branch. For the challenges facing CSR, the results indicated high costs in provision of CSR activities, CSR provided is basing in urban areas while excluding remote areas like in villages, some organizations are not willing to engage in CSR activities, lack of enough knowledge about the importance CSR activities to the community and less funds are budgeted for and approved to provide CSR activities. The study recommended that, CRDB should continue engaging into CSR activities specifically in remote areas where currently is not covered by any CSR activity.
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    Effectiveness of internal audit function as corporate governance mechanism in Tanzanian public sector: The case of internal auditor general’s division
    (Mzumbe University, 2019) Kimaro, Godlove
    In order to succeed an organization need to have good corporate governance. Internal audit functions as a service to management can ensure this by being effective. The main aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in the public sector in Tanzania with special focus on the office of the Internal Auditor General’s Division (IAGD).The study specifically endeavoured to determine the status of internal audit as a corporate governance tool in Tanzania, to determine internal audit good practices ensuring sound corporate governance and identifying factors that affect directly the effectiveness of the internal audit function in the Tanzanian public sector. The study employed a case study technique. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from all the internal auditors in the offices of IAGD. Out of a total of 34 respondents, a total of 28 (82.35%) responded. This study employed both primary and secondary information. The results from the analysis concluded that the effectiveness of the internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in the public sector in Tanzania is brought about by all the examined factors except segregation of duties. Also, it was found that effectiveness of internal audit function had led to good corporate governance at IAGD. Recommendations were made to both the central government and IAGD. The central government was advised to review the structure, nature of appointment and recruitment process, overlap of functions, nature of distribution of tasks and responsibilities, and the number of employees in IAGD. Also, the management of Internal Auditor General’s Division were advised to make sure audit recommendations are implemented by audited entities and provide its employees with all support needed.