Dissertations (Master's) MAED

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    The trend of child labour and its effects on access to primary education in Masasi District
    (Mzumbe University, 2017) Makandi, Herry
    For many years in Tanzania, appropriate interventions for enhancing access to primary education have been limited by several factors. This study provides the profile of the trend of child labour in Masasi district and its effects on the access to primary education among the children. The study utilizes case study design under qualitative sequential quantitative mixed research approach basing on interpretive philosophical lens. The survey involves four ward of Masasi district in which seventy-three (73) out of school child labourers aged 5 -14 years were involved in a sample acquired through purposive sampling. With the use of interview, questionnaire, observation and document analysis the findings revealed that child labour in Masasi district has been less considered by the surrounding community as a problem. Lower income of the parents has been identified as the major factor fueling child labour in the district whereby children have to work to meet their own needs and the family’s. Yet, child labour leads to massive dropouts among children in primary schools and cause complete failure of enrolment to some other children. Understanding that the problem can be reduced, the framework to address how to curb child labour has been proposed. Data analysis employed SPSS computer software version 16.0 and Microsoft Office Excel in analysing quantitative data. Also there was the use of content analysis in the analysis of qualitative.
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    Assessment of teachers’ and parents’ role in promoting students’ discipline in community secondary schools in tanzania: A case of selected schools in Kilosa District
    (Mzumbe University, 2016) Kadama , Daniel L.
    The study aimed at assessing the teachers‟ and parents‟ role in promoting students‟ discipline in community secondary schools. Specific objectives were: to explore the status of discipline in community secondary schools; to identify the measures taken by teachers to promote students‟ discipline in schools; to find out the measures taken by parents to ensure students”/children’s discipline is promoted both at home and at school; to explore the collaboration between teachers and parents in promoting students‟ discipline; to investigate the challenges that teachers encounter when they deal with students‟ indiscipline; and lastly, to investigate the challenges that parents encounter when they deal with students‟ indiscipline. The study was guided by behaviour modification theory which emphasized the ways parents and teachers can apply to make students behave well in classrooms and at home. The study employed case study design adopting a qualitative approach holistically. It was carried out in some selected secondary schools in Kilosa district with a population of teachers and students‟ parents. The sample size of the study was sixty; thirty teachers and thirty parents. The sampling technique was purposive as only the teachers and parents were to be included in the study. Data collection methods included interviewing, focus group discussion and documentary review of letters, reports and rules and regulations as instruments. Findings revealed that the status of discipline in community secondary schools is bad. Many students engage in unsafe sexual relations, truancy, disrespect and wearing improper school uniforms. All these are acts of indiscipline. Collaboration between teachers and students‟ parents is not strong; it needs to be strengthened. Teachers and parents strive to take necessary measures to rescue students from immorality. The task of dealing with students‟ indiscipline is still very challenging to both teachers and parents. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and students‟ parents should have strong and maximum cooperation to help to promote students‟ discipline. Teachers should become students‟ role models and also need to apply guidance and counseling to undisciplined students.
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    Persistent dropout in rural community secondary schools in Tanzania: A case of Makete district.
    (Mzumbe University, 2017) Masamalo, Zawadi
    This study examined persistent dropout in rural ordinary level community secondary school in Makete District Council. Specifically the study focused at factors for school dropout, strategies employed to overcome the problem, effectiveness of the employed strategies and viable measures so as to eliminate the problem. The study adopted a mixed method design, targeting secondary school students in Makete district. A sample size of 167 respondents was drawn by using cluster, snowball and purposive sampling techniques. Observation, interview, questionnaire and focus group discussion methods were used to collect primary data while documentary review was used for collecting secondary data. Collected data were further coded and analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 20) for tables and figures presentations. The study discovered that economic factors other than poverty and parents/guardians‟ negative attitudes towards secondary education are the main factors for school dropout in Makete district. Tree farming as the chief economic activity enable people to earn a lot of money after timber harvesting and later transform its capital into business activities. These activities influences students to dislike school and see that secondary education as wastage of time and so decide to quit school so as to fully engage in these activities for generating money. Parents/guardians also believe that investing in secondary education is the wastage of their money and time, regarding tree farming and business as the sounding inheritance to their children, and so most of them convince students to quit school. Legal authorities arrested parents/guardians who hid and forced students to quit school together with sending the dropouts back to school. These strategies were less successful as students continued to drop out of schools. The study recommends that there is a need of improving free secondary education, improvement of teaching and learning environment, provision of education on the importance of investing in human capital and general protection of children‟s rights especially that of education.
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    Communicative approach strategies to english language teaching in Tanzanian secondary schools: Are they really working?
    (Mzumbe University, 2017) Levina, Paschal
    This study intended to examine the communicative approach strategies to teaching English language in Tanzanian secondary schools, and find out if they are really working. The study specifically intended to examine the application of CA Strategies to English Language Teaching, assess the extent to which CA strategies were used in ELT situation and lastly find out the effectiveness of CA teaching strategies in ELT. The study was conducted in Morogoro municipality involving five sampled schools obtained through random sampling. The study employed Questionnaires, Interviews and observation as methods of data collection. It involved a sample of 99 respondents comprising of 69 students, 20 English teachers, 05 History teachers and 05 Civics teachers. It involved a cross-sectional, case study research design; whereby data were collected from both secondary and primary sources once in a time. Data were analyzed through both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The findings revealed that to some extent the respondents do apply CA principles as the requirement of the competence based syllabus. It was also noted that many teachers are not competent in English language as they sometimes do mix Kiswahili and English when teaching. This is one of the sign of incompetence to some of them; this incompetence was also observed during the interview sessions. This shows the discrepancy between theory and practice in regard to our policy. It has been observed that students lack willingness in using English language at school, unless they are forced to do so. It can be concluded that the communicative approach strategies to ELT in Tanzanian secondary schools are somewhat working, it needs strategies and commitment by stakeholders to have them work effectively. The study made several recommendations, however in this abstract only the major ones have been presented as follows; students should be insisted to speak English all the time inside and outside the classrooms, English and other subject teachers should, as much as possible use English when teaching their subject except Kiswahili subject; the Government should ensure that schools are provided with sufficient teaching and learning resources so as to make CA successful; and the Government should also see to it that schools have enough teachers so that student‟s/ teacher‟s ratio can be brought down to 1:40 for effective implementation of CA strategies.
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    School boards engagement in resolving conflicts in public secondary schools: The case of Ngara District council
    (Mzumbe University, 2017) Bulindori, Onesmo
    Various strategies of resolving students‟ conflicts in public secondary schools are growing in Africa. However, little is known on the effectiveness of the mechanisms that are used in conflict resolutions by the school boards in public secondary schools using Ngara district council as a case study. The study adopted a case study design, in which the quantitative research approach dominated over the qualitative ones, thus giving rise to quant-qual research design. The study utilized a sample of 103 study participants which comprised of 48 teaching staff and 48 school boards who were surveyed using structured questionnaires; 6 heads of school who were interviewed using interview schedules; as well as a District Secondary Education Officer who was interviewed using interview schedules. The primary data were collected through the use of questionnaires, interviews, and observation. Descriptive type of data analysis was performed to measure the relationship between the type of strategies for resolving conflicts and the effectiveness of the mechanisms in reducing students‟ conflicts in public secondary schools by using (SPSS) version 20. The study revealed that the mechanisms used to resolve students‟ conflict by the school boards members in public secondary schools were effective. However, to a lesser extent this was not accepted by a relative small group of teachers who were of the view that on some incidences the school boards side with students. The most conflicts that rise in schools include: Students with teachers; students with the school management; as well as students among themselves. It was also reported that the sources of conflicts in schools includes lack of enough teachers, poor learning environment, students‟ bad behavior and lack of enough funds. Several types of conflict resolution mechanisms were used by school boards. Among others include: Use of formal meetings with students; school closure; as well as use of coercion from police forces. Also, the study revealed that a relative high proportion of the school board members were knowledgeable on matters related to conflict resolution mechanisms at secondary school level. As such, they were able to competently engage in resolving conflicts within the school setting. The study ends up by recommending that, indeed, there is a need for having an association of school boards‟ members for all secondary schools at a national and regional level in order to share lessons or experiences from various groups. Equally important, designing a journal for school boards can offer necessary remedies towards addressing students‟ atrocities.
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    Implementation of learner centred methods within the constraints of shortage of instructional resources and facilities: A case of Itigi District council.
    (Mzumbe University, 2016) Kawishe, Titus Kibarabara
    The main purpose of this study was to find out implementation of LCMs within the constraints of shortage of instructional resources and facilities. Specific areas covered were; First to identify reasons for shortage of instructional resources and facilities in implementing LCMs. Second to identify strategies for implementing LCMs in the context of shortage of instructional resources and facilities. Third to examine whether strategies of implementing LCMs help to promote performance despite of shortage of resources and facilities. Fourth to find out views of teachers towards challenges of implementing LCMs within shortage of instructional resources and facilities. This study used multiple case study research design, qualitative in nature and aimed to comprise of 103 respondents selected randomly and purposely. Data were collected through interviews, documentary review, focus group discussions and observations. Data from interviews and documentary review were analysed by content analysis and that from observations were analysed through drawing meaning by inference. This study reveals that strategies teachers used to implement LCMs within the shortage of instructional resources and facilities are functioning to improve students‟ performance. The findings shows students increase the morale of studying and confidence hence raises their ability to grasp the intended knowledge. The findings also disclose that, the major cause of shortage of instructional resources and facilities is lack of funds for buying gears for LCMs like books, computers, projectors, and printers. Moreover, it was revealed that teachers view LCMs as the best methods, however, close supervision of curriculum is advised. Also teachers should be trained to enable them to apply LCMs in an effective way and increase of funds for the schools was advised. It is recommended that it is worthwhile to ensure that all key educational stakeholders play their roles, without which good teaching methods will always remain on papers. Teaching using LCMs should be achieved in its implementation. The study concludes that the application of LCMs in secondary schools is apparent and important, but there should be a serious improvements for better results from these methods.
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    Relationship between foreign direct investment, exports and economic growth in Tanzania: A time series analysis
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Bomani, Bertha Alfred
    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and exports play a significant role in promoting economic growth in many countries. However, empirical studies have not found consistent results, with some literature indicating that FDI and export have adverse impacts to the economy. This study examined long run and causality relationships between FDI, exports and economic growth for Tanzania. The study used time series data for 30 years (1980- 2010) which were obtained from TIC and UNCTAD. By using Johansen test of counteraction, Vector Auto regression model and Granger causality test the study found that there was a single cointegrating vector. The equation was relating FDI and exports (as independent variables) to Economic growth, the dependent variable. Furthermore, there was unidirectional causality relationship with the direction from FDI and exports to GDP growth rate (economic growth). There was also a unidirectional causality with the direction from FDI to exports. Therefore, FDI Granger caused GDP growth rate and exports, while exports Granger caused GDP growth rate only. This further implied that, FDI have a direct and indirect causality to GDP growth rate. This observation necessitated the special consideration for making FDI working for growth. Likewise for total exports which had positive and significant relationship to economic growth. The findings in this study support the export-led growth hypothesis and FDI as the engine for economic growth. For export and FDI to effectively promote growth, the study recommends that policy frameworks and incentive packages should be competitive and vigorous enough.
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    Participation of private sector companies in emerging capital markets: A study of capital markets in Tanzania.
    (Mzumbe University, 2011) Nangawe , Abbi Godfrey
    This study aimed at determining factors influencing participation of private sector companies in Tanzanian emerging capital market. The study answered the question on the relationship between a company‟s going public decisions on the one hand and going public rules and regulations (which include ordinance compliance requirements, prospectus information disclosure and external monitoring and corporate governance), going public costs, company‟s confidentiality, company‟s reputation and credibility, and company‟s portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing on the other hand. The testable hypotheses were formulated as follows: (i) Going public rules and regulations are negatively associated with company‟s decision to go public; (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Going public costs are negatively associated with company‟s decision to go public; Company‟s confidentiality syndrome is negatively associated with company‟s decision to go public; Company‟s reputation and credibility is positively associated with company‟s decision to go public; and, Company‟s portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing is positively associated with company‟s decision to go public. The study adopted a survey design using a cross-sectional approach. The sample size comprised of 168 private profit making companies from three regions of Tanzania mainland, namely Arusha, Dar es Salaam, and Kilimanjaro. The three regions were selected because they account for over 61% of all private profit making and non-profit making companies in Tanzania mainland (CRE, 2007). Data analysis used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and applied a multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) model, using the ordinary least square (OLS) estimation technique. Findings of the study had mixed support for the hypotheses. Four predictor variables which slightly supported the hypotheses are: portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing; external monitoring and corporate governance; company‟s confidentiality and prospectus information disclosure requirements. Surprisingly enough, company‟s control variables did not support our hypotheses. The actual results of the study revealed that, empirical support came from company portfolio diversification to allow risk sharing, prospectus information disclosure requirements, company reputation and credibility and company confidentiality. On the other hand, results revealed there was no empirical support for going public costs, while going public ordinance compliance requirements was only slightly supported. The study recommends measures which will enhance capital markets policy interventions. First, are measures to be instituted by policy makers to increase supply of and demand for security instruments and to strengthen the regulatory operating capacity. Second, are training and research measures which will enable Capital Markets and Securities Authority (CMSA), in collaboration with Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE), training and research institutions, to develop and promote new market strategies, such as curricular programmes to enhance the public‟s awareness of capital markets. Last, but not least, the study recommends strategic measures to private sector companies which will enhance their incentives to save, and mechanisms to channel those savings into further investments. Finally, the study suggests directions for future research on capital markets participation in emerging markets and Tanzania in particular.
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    Contractual arrangements and smallholder cane growers’ performance: Evidence from Kilombero and Turiani, Morogoro – Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Nsindagi, Thobias Edward
    Contract farming (CF) is widely accepted as a tool for improving performance of smallholder farmers in developing countries. In Tanzania CF has been practised in the sugar sector since 2006. However, ever since its commencement, sugarcane production trend portrays ambiguous conclusion with regard to smallholders‟ performance. Based on these trends, this study intended to examine the role of CF on performance focusing on process upgrading, profitability and income diversification in sugarcane production. The objectives were (i) to assess whether CF arrangements facilitate or obstruct farmers from upgrading their production processes, (ii) to determine the levels of efficiency of smallholder cane growers and identify factors influencing the efficiency levels, and (iii) to determine the extent of diversification among sugar cane growers and identify factors influencing diversification. Each objective had its own methodological approach. In analysing these objectives, various econometric tools were used e.g. Cobb Douglas stochastic profit function to analyse factors influencing farm profitability, and single limit Tobit regression for analysing factors influencing income diversification using a sample size of 386 respondents. The findings indicated that CF offers limited incentives and capabilities necessary for upgrading smallholder cane growers‟ processes. About 84% of cane growers affirmed that price of sugarcane, payment systems, and enforcement mechanisms were the main constraints for them to upgrade their production process. Similarly, the capability parameters such as training, extension services, input provision and access to credit were not included in the agreements and therefore cane growers‟ capabilities were adversely affected. Econometric model result indicated that, market satisfaction, a proxy for CF arrangement was not a significant determinant of farm profitability. However, descriptive statistics showed that price and payment mechanisms exhibited high profit inefficiency. This implies that market access restricts attainment of optimal farm frontier profit. Regarding input use, fertilizer was used much below the optimum amount, suggesting that there is a considerable room for input use expansion to boost productivity, and consequently, farm profitability. Tobit result indicated that land ownership, education, household size, and access to paved road were important determinants of diversification. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that access to incentive and capability variables, improved pricing and payment modalities, and access to various assets might improve performance, profitability and welfare of the sugarcane growers.
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    Analysis of efficiency in public hospitals in Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2018) Fumbwe, Fatuma M.
    For the past two decades, Tanzania has implemented various policies that aim to improve the performance of health sector and health status of every citizen. These efforts and policies had direct impact on improving health sector and achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite various efforts to improve health sector, the sector is still faced with various challenges, one among is inefficiency. The purpose of this study was to estimate efficiency of public hospitals in Tanzania for the year 2016. Specifically, the study sought to determine technical efficiency, scale efficiency and identifying factors influencing efficiency. To achieve the objectives, the study employed Data Envelopment Analysis (SFA), Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) and Tobit regression model on secondary data for the regional and district hospitals obtained from the Ministry of Health, Community, Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC). The study used medical staff and beds as input variables, and outpatients and inpatients as output variable. Results from DEA revealed that average technical efficiency of district hospitals and Regional referral hospitals was 69.3% and 90.7% respectively while findings from SFA depicted average efficiency score of 58% and 55% for Regional referral hospital and District hospitals respectively. In scale efficiency, 21.05% of District hospitals were efficient and 43.75% of Regional referral hospitals were scale efficient. On the other hand, Tobit regression results revealed that nurse, medical doctors, clinical officers and medical attendant are important factors in hospital production process, and they have influence on efficiency of public hospitals Lastly, the study concludes that Ministry of Health, Community, Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC), and other concerned ministries and stakeholders need to take measures to improve efficiency as the study depicted inefficiency in public hospitals. Estimation of efficiency in public hospitals should be conducted regularly and reallocation of resources is necessary to be done in public hospitals.
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    Household behaviour towards water conservation activities in Mvomero District council, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2018) Lameck, Emanuel
    Water pollution in both improved and unimproved sources have become a major environmental evil in the 21 st century. Human related causes such as lack of proenvironmental behaviour and participation have further limited the access to clean water. Therefore, this study examined the households‟ behaviour towards water conservation activities in Mvomero district council by further examining the extent of households‟ participation in; costs and benefits from water conservation activities; and factors influencing households‟ water conservation behaviour. To achieve this study objective, a convergent parallel mixed method was employed to collect both qualitative and quantitative primary data from 210 households regarding their socioeconomic characteristics, their extent of participation in; as well as their perceived costs and benefits from water conservation activities. Again, aided with data transformation approach, the study employed a quantitative method of data analysis prior to presentation of findings. Our findings reveal that, majority of the households are neither aware nor participating in the few practiced water conservation activities in the study area. The Probit model shows that education level, income, participation in water conservation activities, attitude, and environmental knowledge are statistically significant; while gender, household size, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and land ownership are statistically insignificant but altogether influence water conservation behaviour positively except for income. However, age, marital status, benefits, and costs from water conservation activities negatively influence water conservation behaviour, yet statistically insignificant. The results of this study reflects the lifestyle of the households in Mvomero district council, their behavioural groupings and complexity which are crucial for future policy options; and to policy makers who successfully desire to enhance water conservation behaviour to a broader community.
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    The impact of government expenditure on pro poor sectors in reducing poverty: A case of Kibaha District
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Musiba, Crispin
    This study examined the impact of government expenditure on pro poor sectors in reducing poverty in Kibaha district for the period of 2000 – 2009. The tool of analysis used is error correction model and pair wise granger causality to examine the impact of government expenditure on pro poor sectors for economic growth and poverty reduction. Tanzania has been characterized by increased public expenditure on pro poor sectors yet, it is experiencing an economic activity and pro poor growth been shrinking. For example, inflation has fallen from 30% in 1995 to 4.4% in 2004 and GDP grew at 5.2% in 2004, up from 2.6% in 1995. Despite these achievements, the decline in poverty has been only 3% during the 1990s (from 39 to 36%). The main objective of this study is to analysis the impact of government expenditure on pro-poor sectors in reducing poverty in Kibaha district. Pro poor sectors mentioned in this study are agriculture, health, education and roads. This study carried out statistical examinations to ensure the data was valid and reliable. Therefore, data diagnostics (stationery and unusual data) and good-fit model specification test (time series properties, normality test, unit root test, autocorrelation test, and cointegration test) were established. The study indicated that cointegration exist only when Per Capital Income (PCI) act as dependent variable. A long run relationship exists among PCI, road, health, education and agriculture expenditure in Kibaha district. The result for causality shows that government health expenditure granger causes per capital income and the causality runs from health expenditure to per capital income. Moreover, the result shows that on average, government expenditure on education have a positive significant effect on per capita income in Kibaha district. Others, government expenditure on agriculture and roads have positive relationship on per capita income and insignificant. Coefficient of health government expenditure has negative insignificant relationship on per capita income. The results emphasize the importance of government prioritization on its expenditure and spend. The implications of study are to improve investment to the pro poor sectors. In the course of implementing the development of pro poor sectors and other poverty reduction policies and strategies, people need to be trained for skills necessary to cater for the changing poverty and economic environment. It is recognized that, the success of poverty reduction policy depends on among others, well-developed human resources base.
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    The role of business incubators in the informal and semi-formal financing of micro, small and medium enterprises: The case of incubated enterprises in Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2018) Kibona, Deogratias
    There is a consensus in literature that high economic growth rates contribute to economic and social development. At the same time, it is argued that the countries economic growth rate is mainly determined by among other factors, their ability to trade and invest. The success in trade and investment is determined by the role of two major players; governments and enterprises. While a government makes policies, enterprises trade and invest. The enterprise sector includes the micro, small, medium, large enterprises and even multinational companies. However, Micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) account for the largest portion of sector. MSMEs promote new ideas and accelerate the effective use of resources, they also contribute to the growth of gross domestic product of a country. This is mainly due to their involvement in production activities, job creation and payment of taxes. For the changing economic environment, MSMEs are flexible and have a great ability of adjusting themselves to fit the new environment due to the fact that their decision making process is simple and fast. Their ability to quickly adapt to changes ensures the resilience of the economy in time of crises. MSMEs also contribute to diversification of the economy through generation of technical innovations. This big contribution to the economic development creates interest of researching in the MSMEs sector. This research has focused on assessing the role of business incubators on incubated MSMEs’access to informal and semi-formal finance in Tanzania. The investigation is made to understand whether business incubators play a financial intermediation role between enterprises and if incubatee and incubator manager’s social capital has a significant influence on the process.
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    Socio-economic determinants of household spending on education in Sumbawanga Municipality
    (Mzumbe University, 2016) Mpasa,Oscar
    Since independence, the government of Tanzania has pursued various strategies to develop the education sector and ensure access to education to its citizens. The 5th phase government recently adopted free education policy up to the secondary level for government schools. In this arrangement, fees and compulsory contributions have been abolished. However, the structural differences in education attainment still exist among children. This is mainly attributed to differing patterns of spending in other aspects of education expenditure. The present study is an attempt to systematically analyse the socio-economic determinants of education spending at the household level. The study identified social-economic determinants of education at four levels, namely household head specific characteristics, household specific characteristics, school specific characteristic and student specific characteristics. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted to Sumbawanga Municipality randomly selected households. Three sets of regressions involving expenditure categories of non-fee, fee and total as the dependent variables of the study estimated. The OLS estimation technique was used for estimating the non-fee and total education expenditure equations whereas fee education expenditure equation was analysed using Tobit model. The main findings from this study show that income of the household, sex, marital status of the household head and location of the school within a district are the key factors determining the amount to be spent in education. However, the level of education and working status of the household head are positively significant determinant of both non-fee and total education expenditure. Ownership of durable assets in the household is significant determinant of amount to be spent on fee and total education expenditure. The number of students in the household is significant and positively correlated to total education expenditure. Therefore, in attempt to improve education attainment, policy makers should target the majority of poor households. Finally, public and household expenditures complement each other. The improvement of public schools in habitants with well trained and motivated teachers will be an incentive for household to increase spending in education.
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    Examining the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Shinyanga Municipality
    (Mzumbe University, 2016) Mpasa, Allex
    The study attempted to examine performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Shinyanga municipality. The aim of the study was to provide the knowledge to the people on how to start and manage Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and be aware with the factors affecting performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This would help them to manage their business sustainably. The factors tested were: demographic characteristics (age, sex, and education level of SMEs owners), business characteristics (capital structure and age of SMEs), institutional characteristics (business information and financial accessibility) and marketing strategy as the intermediate variable. The study was conducted in Shinyanga municipality covering Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) operating within the geographical area. The study used the cross sectional study design in which data of 189 SMEs owners, and employee was collected only once. Both descriptive and empirical methods were applied during the study. The regression results show that, the significant factors which affect small and medium enterprises (SMEs) performance were: demographic factors (age and education level of SMEs owners), business characteristics (capital structure) and institution characteristics (access to finance and business information). On the other hand demographic characteristics (sex of respondent) and business characteristics (age of SMEs) are insignificantly contribute to the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) performance. This study recommends for policy makers to make sure that education is given to the SMEs‟ owners and employees by providing appropriate business and entrepreneurial knowledge and skills which will encourage them to start and manage business successful. There is also, a need for the government to make sure that, businessmen and women are enabled to have access to loans (credits) with few conditions from banks and other financial intermediaries for expanding their businesses. Moreover soft loans should be provided to those who want to start new businesses and encourage women to engage in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) activities.
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    Analysis of green investments for combating climatic changes through carbon credit in Tanzania: A case study of Gepat in Karagwe District, Kagera Region
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Charles, Juliana
    Carbon credit provision has been reported to be used as an economic incentive in mitigating climate change in the world. It has been reported by different climatic change activists that reforestation is the most important program in combating climate change in the world. This has been a concern for Project Managers (PM) and Economic Planners to address sustainable development in their plan. PMs and other social scientists cannot be involved in different natural scientific experiments, but the only way to participate in climatic change mitigation is to study economic behavioral systems directed to climatic change mitigation. Therefore, the provision of carbon credit in tree planting projects is based on the notion that trees help to mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon dioxide as they grow. This study evaluates the contribution of provision of carbon credit incentives for combating climate change through tree plantation. The study uses a case study analysis in Kituntu and Rwambaizi wards in Karagwe District. The sampling frame was 1093 smallholder farmers (SHFs) whereby a sample of 120 was chosen. The research design was mainly triangulation methods whereby qualitative and quantitative research techniques were employed. Data was collected using questionnaire and observation method. Data collected were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods, whereas simple statistics and linear regression model was used to test the hypotheses. The results reveal that the provision of carbon credit incentives such as seeds, seedlings and cash paid to farmers who plant trees have positive impact in increasing the rate of tree planting for combating climate change effects. In addition, the results shows that other factors which influence farmers to plant trees are the size of land owned by farmers and overall level of education which were found to be significant. effect in tree planting. However, the results also reveal that there is lack of extension services and technical support regarding tree plantation to farmers in the rural areas such as Karagwe District.It is recommended that those government institutions and other environmental protection stakeholders such as Wakk Foundation and Green Choice to cooperate with private institution in offering and creating incentive oriented programs in tree planting. The incentives motivates to motivate farmers to plant trees in their own land for the purpose of combating climate change needs to go tandem with planting timber, fruits bearing , oil seed and other beneficial trees. Commercial beneficial trees are relevant to the poor because the poor are continuously fighting poverty and therefore awareness creation on the importance and benefits of trees is equally an incentive to plant trees.The awareness creation on environmental education programs should be done frequently in the rural areas in order to reduce the rate of deforestation and increase the rate of afforestation. There is a need to conserve existing trees and add on new commercial and medicinal trees. Extension services should be established in rural areas so as the farmers will be able to get technical support from extension agents. In a way the goal of combating climate change through planting of trees in farmers' fields organized in a TRUST such as GEPAT will be achieved.
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    SME taxpayers perceptions on tax compliance in Tanga City and Muheza District, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2017) Sifuni, Twamzihirwa Daudi
    The present study assesses the perceptions of small and medium enterprises on factors affecting tax compliance in Tanzania. Where the research problem was based on low tax compliance as a result of increase in tax evassion. The study employed crosssectional research design with sample size of 160 respondents (Tax payers). A purposive non probability sampling and random probability sampling technique were used to choose respondents from the study area. Semi-structure questionnaire was used to capture intended information. Data collected were analyzed by descriptive statistics, logit Model and chi square-test. The findings on analysis of demographic characteristic of the SME Tax payers revealed that majority of respondents about 48.13 percent were between 40 and 51 years. The majority which was 55.6 percent of respondents had primary education. Meanwhile 51.2 percent of respondents were married. Moreover, the results revealed that 73.13 percent of respondents had business income between 500001 and 4500000 Tsh per month while 45.6 percent of respondents had 4-49 employees in their business. However majority of respondents agreed that the tax collected assists the government in provision of services. On the other hand the result shows that there is association between tax payer’s perception on tax rate, fines, government services delivery, and penalty towards tax compliance. Furthermore the result from logistic regression model indicated that if tax rate is perceived high by SMEs tax payers, tax compliance would decrease by 25.50%. Moreover, perception of SMEs tax payers on penalty was high; penalty would be expected to increase tax compliance by 46.99%. If the perception of SMEs tax payers on fine was high, fines would be expected to increase the tax compliance by 29.58%. If perception of SMEs tax payers on government service delivery was high the tax compliance would be expected to increase by 61.93%. The study recommends that, the government should inject tax education to the education curriculum from the primary level in order to increase tax awareness to the community and remove wrong perception prevailing in the society.
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    The gendered paths to educational evaluation: Factors contributing to gender gap in women engagement for pets in Kilosa District
    (Mzumbe University, 2017) Msati, Abdillahi Abbas
    While women and girls make a relative high number of rural populations compared to men, researches show than few women than male engage in the CSOs initiated Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) at the district level to evaluate the local government use of financial resources for education sector. Based on such grounds, this study investigated factors contributing to gender gap in women access to opportunities for civic engagement in Kilosa district. The study utilised the descriptive case study design, conducted using both qualitative and quantitative approaches to research. Also, a sample of 120 study participants sampled for this study from Kilosa District was utilised and approached through the use of structured questionnaires and interview schedules. The study relied on descriptive analysis of primary data through the use of the SPSS, and secondary data analysis. The findings of the study show several factors that contribute to gender gap in women engagement for PETS in education sector. The acquired low level of education and multiple responsibilities were found the leading factors that contribute to gender gap in women engagement for PETS. Also, women were found to possess low levels of knowledge on PETS, and this creates fear in women engagement for PETS. Further, officials from CSOs who implement PETS perceived women to lack confidence in the PETS process. This can be possibly explained by the fact that women especially those living in rural areas have been socialized in a non-masculinity tendencies which limit their aggressiveness in the practice of PETS. The study concludes that the gendered type of socialization in rural settings generates factors that determine engagement in PETS. In this light, the study ends up by advancing several recommendations to CSOs and CBNs coordinating PETS and policy makers as women in the rural set ups. The key recommendations were seldom need to prepare strategic interventions to engage women and girls, there was need to institutionalize a gender lens at the local council level. There is a need to feminize the decentralization process in order to bridge the reform gaps. The local council enough planning department together with CSOs, should create a platform which could enhance visibility of rural community members the process of policy.
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    Participation of households in local economic development programme and poverty reduction: Empirical evidence from support to local economy in Mwanza (slem)
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Marco, Salu
    The main objective of this study was to assess the various factors that influence participation of households in local economic development income generating activities as well as poverty reduction in the study area of Mwanza region. Two districts were purposively selected basing on the availability of households who participated in local economic development projects. These districts are Misungwi and Sengerema. To better inform, this study employed a sample size of 240 households to determine the factors which influences household participation in local economy and poverty reduction. The study revealed that most of the surveyed households participated in small business with participation rate of 38 percent and income share of 61.4 percent of the total income from household participation in local economy. Local economic development projects perceived to be important economic activities for income generation that assisted the households to finance some of their basic needs such as education 28 percent, food 29 percent, medical services 22 percent and clothing materials 21 percent. Tobit regression analysis was applied to investigate factors that influence households’ decision to participate in local economic activities. The results indicated that household participation in economic activities is significantly influenced by land size, amount of loan, location, other income and age square of household head. For the improvement of the programme there is a need to invest in education and rural infrastructure. Also, attention should be taken into account on the availability of sustainable markets, capital mobilization, accessibility of loans, women empowerment and support on research activities in local economic development programme.
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    The causative factors and consequential effects of time overrun in road construction projects in Tanzania: The case of national roads
    (Mzumbe University, 2017) Mang’wela, Christopher John.
    Many road projects in Tanzania experience extensive delays, thereby exceeding the planned project duration date which often lead to cost overruns, disputes and claims between the parties involved. The main objective of this study was to assess the most common causes of time overrun, its effects and suggest possible measures to grapple with the persisting problem. This study answered three key questions which were: what are the causes of time overrun in road construction projects in Tanzania, what are the associated effects resulting from such situations, and what measures can be taken to minimize the detrimental consequences caused. The main methodology employed was a questionnaire survey conducted among 89 major road project stakeholders who included owners, contractors and consultants. The Relative importance index of each cause and the effect was carried out. This study identified the most common causes of time overrun in road construction projects. Besides, exploratory factor analysis was carried out to eliminate variables that are not purely factorial and grouped the core causes under four principal cause groups, namely; competence of the consultant, external elements, competence & project management of the contractor and administration & financial management of the owner. Finally, the probit regression model was applied to identify the level of influence of each factor group on the completion time of road construction projects. In the same vein the most consequential effects of time overrun identified in this study include extended completion time of the project, cost overrun, disputes and claims, negative social impact and arbitration. Overall the study has further shown an average time overrun of 40.4% higher than the original construction durations and cost overrun of 25.1% higher than the original budget in road construction projects. The study ends with recommendations for each of the parties in order to minimize and avoid the causes of time overrun and make sure that projects are completed within the planned timeframe.