Theses (PhD)- LSD

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    Using open access institutional repositories (OAIRs) for enhancing access to local contents in Tanzanian Universities
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2023) Mbughuni, Anna Shangwe
    Open Access Institutional Repositories (OAIRs) are technologies that enhance access to local content produced by academic staff members in universities. However, these OAIRs in Tanzania have fewer uploaded scholarly contents produced by academic staff members than is the case with OAIRs of universities in other countries. This study investigated how OAIRs in Tanzania enhance access to local content to meeting the diverse information needs of potential users. Specifically, the study established the extent to which academic staff members engage in self-archiving of local contents in OAIRs, and determined factors that influence self-archiving of local contents in OAIRs, the usage patterns of OAIRs and how OAIR policy can be used to improve the collection of OAIR contents in selected universities in Tanzania. The study area includes four selected public universities in Tanzania namely: Mzumbe University (MU), University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), and Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). This study was guided by the pragmatic paradigm; and used a cross-sectional survey research design to investigate how OAIRs in Tanzania enhance access to local content to meet the diverse information needs of potential users. The study involved 2894 participants including 413 (academic staff) that were obtained through systematic random sampling, four Heads of Department, two ICT technicians, and two Library Technicians. These eight key informants were selected through purposive sampling techniques. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. Interviews and structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data while literature on OAIRs, OAIR policy documents, and statistics from ROAR and Open DOAR were v used to collect secondary data. The SPSS version 22- computer software programme was used to analyse quantitative data where descriptive and inferential statistics were obtained. Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data, which were presented in a narrative form. The thesis is organized in paper format. The first paper explored academic staff members’ engagement in depositing locally produced content in OAIRs in public universities in Tanzania. Findings showed that 92.5 per cent of the academic staff members were aware of the OAIRs and 46.2 per cent reported to engage themselves in self-archiving their scholarly works in OAIRs. Furthermore, the study revealed that poor Internet connectivity and unstable power supply were the challenges academic staff members faced in depositing their scholarly publications in OAIRs. The second paper investigated how the self-archiving of scholarly publications in OAIRs can be strengthened for improved access to local content in Tanzania. Findings showed that the self-archiving of scholarly publications in OAIRs is influenced by factors such as motivating, technical support, influence of colleagues, OAIRs policy, and supporting services. Likewise, the study revealed, the lack of personal benefit, inadequate advocacy, the low level of awareness, the lack of sufficient ICT infrastructure and plagiarism as barriers against self-archiving. The third paper investigated how OAIR submission policy can be used to improve OAIR contents. Findings showed that the OAIR submission policy is available in their universities, as reported by 46.2 per cent of the respondents. The findings also revealed that OAIR submission policy has been used to direct academic staff to submit their scholarly publications in OAIRs (45.5%). Furthermore, in order to improve the collection of OAIR contents, regular awareness creation of the rules and regulations on how to submit in OAIRs was vii cited 24.5 per cent of the respondents as important strategy of increasing the use of OAIRs cited. About 18.5 per cent of the respondents suggested effective implementation of OAIR submission policy for academic staff members to submit in the university OAIRs as another strategy. About 16.3 per cent suggested for an increase visibility and accessibility of OAIR policy through the university website; and about 14 per cent suggested that OAIRs submission policy be made clear to authors and the institutions operating the OAIRs. The fourth paper investigated the usage patterns of OAIRs among academic staff members in Tanzanian universities. Findings indicated that 43.7 per cent of the respondents used OAIRs for accessing and downloading scholarly publications, 40.7 per cent used OAIRs for browsing and reviewing scholarly publications for teaching, learning, and research work and 32.9 per cent used OAIRs for self-archiving their scholarly outputs. Likewise, the study found that motivation and social factors were the only variables that had a unique influence on the use of OAIRs at a 1 per cent level of significance (p=0.000). Furthermore, awareness creation of the use of OAIRs and the provision of enough digital skills and ICT infrastructure were found important in improving the use of OAIRs. From the foregoing findings and observations, it is concluded that academic staff members are not engaged much in self-archiving their scholarly publications in OAIRs, and the OAIRs policy regarding submission requirements is not implemented as intended; as a result, local contents are poorly uploaded in OAIRs. Therefore, the management of universities should engage academic staff members in self-archiving their academic publications in OAIRs, raise awareness of staff; improve staff's digital skills; provide adequate ICT facilities, manuals and technical assistance to staff on the use of OAIRs and self-archiving; and implement OAIR submission policy in the collection of OAIR contents. These will increase the amount of content and thereby enhance access to local content in OAIRs.
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    Determinants of research Information seeking and usage: A case of postgraduate students at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
    (Kenyatta University, 2018) Kotoroi, Gladness
    Research information is a variety of information required by a researcher who needs to conduct a scientific inquiry on how to select, formulate and develop a research theme of a subject matter in relation to the identified problem within a well-designed methodological framework (Bailey, 2014). Being an assortment of information, it is obtained from individual needs of the researcher and various information sources embedded within the necessities for new knowledge in order to expand or validate the already known information through the process of research information seeking (RIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate on key determinants of postgraduate students’ research information seeking and usage at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in order establish appropriate ways for exploring research information and how the new knowledge gained in form of research findings can practically be shared and utilized for further developments. The study used a sense-making theory to inform the study. The descriptive research design was used. The study used a target population of 1043 Masters’ students, from which a sample of 115 was drawn using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique. The study was conducted at the University of Dar es Salaam and data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. To ensure reliability and validity, a pilot study was conducted and generated a Cronbach’ Alpha 0.76 which was acceptable. Data were generated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM-SPSS Version 25). Descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequencies were used for analysis. The study established that the most influential determinant of postgraduate students’ research information seeking (RIS) and use is the research information needs that tend to differ subject to students’ research stage and the problem at hand. It further established that postgraduate students use different information sources where, the likelihood of information sources to be selected and used is determined by perceived accessibility, ease of use, quality and source’ convenience. The study also revealed that most (62%) of students valued e-sources which were the most frequently used, and they were strongly satisfied with the internet source. It further shows that students have no intention to disseminate their research findings at the end of their degree program except for few (28%), who indicated they need to disseminate their research findings. In addition, the study revealed that the students’ research findings’ utilization was triggered by a number of obstructions. The study recommended that the government needs to provide postgraduate degree sponsorship. It also recommended that specific research submission policy should be put in place. A deliberate and transparent process of transferring research-based knowledge in practice should be instituted as well. In addition, the study recommended that there is a need to conduct further research to identify the obstacles to better research policy communication, capacity and willingness to utilize research findings from postgraduate students.
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    The role of newspapers in the dissemination of climate change information in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Siyao, Peter Onauphoo
    Newspapers make an important communication channel for disseminating many kinds of information. However, there are concerns in many developing countries such as Tanzania that important developmental topics such as climate change are not often given adequate coverage and prominence; instead much attention is paid to topics such as politics, entertainment, crimes, and advertisements. This study established the coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers for a span of 10 years. Specifically, it sought to determine the frequency of reportage given to climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers, determine the level of prominence given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers, establish the sources of information used by newspaper journalists to obtain climate change information, and assess the use of newspapers in accessing climate change information by selected peri-urban newspaper readers in Tanzania. Quantitative data were collected through content analysis and survey whereas qualitative data were collected through key informants interviews. The sample size of the study was 1,600 newspaper editions, 44 newspaper journalists, and 153 peri-urban newspaper readers. Purposive sampling technique was used to select newspapers, regions, and key informants. Snowball sampling technique was used to select peri-urban newspaper readers. Systematic and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain newspaper editions and journalists. Quantitative data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 20 whereas qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. This thesis was developed in paper format. The first paper analysed the level of attention given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers. The results indicate that Tanzanian newspapers had very few (684; 0.84%) articles on climate change giving yearly average of 68.4 articles. Chi-square test indicates a significant difference at 5 percent level of significance (χ2 = 21,765, p-value < 2.2e _16) between the level of coverage of climate change articles and that of other topics in the selected newspapers. These findings suggest that Tanzanian newspapers do not pay adequate attention to climate change issues. The second paper analysed the level of prominence given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers. The findings indicate that of the 684 climate change information articles published in 10 years, only 53 (7.6%) articles appeared on the front pages of the six Tanzanian newspapers, giving yearly average of five articles for all newspapers and only one article for each newspaper per year. Chi-square test shows a statistical significance at 5 percent level (χ2 = 10.000; p-value<0.002) between placement of articles on the front and inside pages. These findings suggest that climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is not given the required level of prominence. The third paper assessed information sources used by Tanzanian newspaper journalists to collect climate change information. The findings indicate that 64 percent of climate change experts and 34.1 percent of daily events such as community meetings and other social gatherings were the main sources of climate change information consulted by newspaper journalists in Tanzania. Other sources of information were less consulted. These include libraries and information centres (2.3%); brochures, magazines, and bulletins (5.6%); journals (11.4%), books (14%), and internet websites (22.7%). Challenges such as abiding by journalistic norms to balance news in climate change (91%), low motivation (77.30%), lack of interest in climate change (75%), financial constraints (68.20%), lack of awareness on the available sources of information (63.64%) and limited knowledge on climate change (61.36%) prevented newspaper journalists from seeking and reporting climate change information. The fourth paper assessed the use of newspapers by peri-urban newspaper readers in accessing climate change information. The findings show that newspapers (65%) are important sources used by peri-urban newspaper readers to access climate change information. Peri-urban newspaper readers experienced challenges such as inadequate coverage of climate change information (87%), unreliability of climate change information (84%), low prominence attached to climate change information (82%), cost barriers (78%), inadequate community information centres and public libraries (73%) in peri-urban areas. These were reported as constraints that impeded newspapers from accessing climate change information. In view of the foregoing findings, it is concluded that coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is very low. This is reflected by the few number of climate change articles in these newspapers. Similarly, the level of prominence attached to climate change articles is very low. This means that Tanzanian newspapers have not adequately played their role of reporting developmental issues including climate change. Increased coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is necessary for the government and general public to direct their efforts to climate change adaptation, coping, and mitigation strategies. Furthermore, newspaper journalists prefer to consult interactive sources to obtain climate change information because they allow a two-way flow of information, they are easily accessible, and they use and provide instant responses. Likewise, climate change information consumers prefer to use newspapers written in Kiswahili which is understood by majority of readers and those which have high news coverage and circulation. The following recommendations are made: (i) Government and private media houses should formulate and introduce clear guidelines and policies of ensuring that the levels of coverage and prominence of developmental issues including climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers are increased. (ii) Government, private newspaper media houses, climate change researchers, organisations involved in the fight against climate change, and journalism colleges should collaborate and devise strategies aimed at building capacity to newspaper editors, journalists, and reporters of dealing with climate change information. This can be achieved by introducing climate change journalism course which will in turn lead to the acquisition of specialised skills and knowledge in writing and reporting evidence based scientific developmental issues findings including climate change in the print media such as newspapers. (iii) Newspaper media houses should overcome barriers that impede coverage and reportage of climate change information. One way of overcoming such barriers include the provision of adequate financial resources to newspaper journalists which will help them acquire necessary resources including ICTs and for meeting other necessary expenses such as travel and accommodation which in turn will enable them to participate in research works for increasing coverage of climate change information in the newspapers. (iv) Climate change information generators such as Tanzania Meteorological Agency should repackage and disseminate reliable climate change forecast that address the needs of the public through popular newspapers with national status. (v) National and local government authorities should provide adequate financial support to public libraries in establishing community information resource centres in peri-urban areas for enabling newspaper readers to access developmental information particularly climate change through Tanzanian newspapers at no or minimal costs.