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    Performance evaluation of microfinance institutions on poverty reduction a case study of Rombo District-Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) William, Kimaro J.
    The study assessed the performance evaluation of microfinance institutions on poverty reduction of Rombo district in Kilimanjaro region. This study was guided by the following research objectives which were; to identify the lending system used by different MFIs to their members in the study area; assess the performance of MFIs, identify constraints facing microfinance institutions in the study area and recommend strategies to improve the performance, and to assess whether the customers reached by these schemes have improved their general performance in terms of economic growth, creation of employment and generation of income. Purposive sampling was used to select 60 active members as the sample who was seriously involved in SACCOS activities. Data collection for this study employed different methods which were used to collect data such as structured questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. The findings revealed that SACCOS were performing according to the intended goals of serving poor rural community. Active poor rural community has been using these SACCOS as a source of credit to finance their business. However, SACCOS are facing some problems including lack of entrepreneurial education to its members, financial institutions to offer loans to SACCOS, inadequate qualified staff to run the institutions, low participation of members to access loans from their SACCOS due to low knowledge of using the opportunities available and low women participation. Moreover, SACCOS are facing other constraints like poor infrastructure, low capacity of SACCOS to serve its members, lack of MFIS in rural areas and inadequate entrepreneurial skills among the members and poor record and book-keeping skill. The recommendations made by this study were that other microfinance institutions be motivated to invest in the Rombo district to increase microloans disbursement to cooperative based MFIs (SACCOS) and that microfinance institutions through well-established SACCOS should train leaders and non-leader members on proper record keeping and financial management:
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    Determinants of men’s involvement in HIV/AIDS voluntary counseling and testing in Ruangwa District Council in Lindi Region, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Shibanda, Hosea
    The main aim of the study was to assess the determinants of men involvement in Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) in Ruangwa District council. The specific objectives were: to document the status of men involvement in the HIV/AIDS VCT, investigate efforts made by the Ruangwa District Council to encourage men involvement in HIV/AIDS VCT, to find out influencing factors and limiting factors and explore ways of promoting participation of men in the VCT. The study used a cross-sectional research design and involved 78 respondents who were sampled purposively and randomly. Data were collected using questionnaires, interview, and documentary review and were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and MS Excel. Findings on the status of the HIV/AIDS VCT show that many people had heard about it, many respondents agreed that the rate of performance of VCT was very important to them, number of VCT centres was not enough and number of men participating in the HIV/AIDS VCT was smaller than that of women. The efforts made by Ruangwa District Council to encourage men involvement in the HIV/AIDS VCT were, establishment of Council Multi-Sectoral AIDS committee (CMAC) , establishment of HIV/AIDS radio programmes, establishment of secondary schools and youth HIV/AIDS clubs, encourage preventive mother to child transmission (PMTCT), factors hindering men from participating in HIV/AIDS VCT were, absence of confidentiality, fear of positive results, stigma, location of VCT room and distance to VCT centers, while facilitating factors were the health problems, religious influence and marriage purposes. The study came up with the following policy implications so as to encourage men in HIV/AIDS voluntary counseling and testing: To meet minimum requirement for VCT, to improve the quality of VCT centres, site security and confidentiality and human resources issues prioritised for sustainability.
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    Challenges facing private health service providers in Tanzania: a case of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDO) in Tabora Municipal Council.
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Kulwijira, Abiud James
    The study aimed at examining the Challenges facing private health service providers in Tanzania. Specifically, the study focused at examining the Performance of private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDO), the challenges facing private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in the provision of health services, the causes of the challenges facing the private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in the provision of services and measures in improving the performance of private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in provision of service in Tabora Municipality. This study applied a case study design, which targeted ADDO owners in Tabora Municipal Council as the private health service providers. A sample size of 100 respondents was drawn by using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire, Interview and Observation methods were applied in collection of primary data, whereas documentary review method was adopted for collecting secondary data. The collected data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Excel Software and Content Analysis then presented in tables, figures and texts. The findings from the study revealed that; Unavailability of qualified staff, Poor storage facilities, shortage of required drugs, Low purchasing power, difficult drug policy, poor Government support, selling expired drugs and high training costs reported by respondents are the challenges facing ADDO. To overcome the challenges facing ADDO, the study suggests; adherence to the Government medical policies, Proper Dispensing of required drugs, effective and efficiency drug planning, improving drug storage and dispensing enough of the required drug.
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    Land use conflicts and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Ulanga district
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Maksi, Deogratias Clemence
    Land is increasingly becoming a source of conflicts in Tanzania and Africa at large, where land access had traditionally been characterized as relatively unrestricted. The main objective of the study was to examine how smallholder farmers’ livelihoods are affected by land use conflicts. Subsequently, there were four specific objectives, to examine land administration system in Tanzania, especially land registration processes on how it affects rural smallholder farmers, to examine the state of land ownership in Ulanga district, to examine the causes for land use conflicts in Ulanga district and to examine the weaknesses of legal institutions for the persistence of the land use conflicts at Ulanga district. Primary data were collected from 120 smallholding farmers from 3 wards 2 villages from each ward. The study findings show that land administration system in Tanzania affects land registration process especially in rural areas due to the fact that most of the rural people failed to afford expenses. Also study findings reveal that most of the rural small farmers possess land through inheritance and customary rights. Moreover, findings show that some of the underlying factors for land conflict are like, lack of clear demarcations, lack of land title deed, population pressure and agricultural commercialization. It seems that in Tanzania formal institutions for land administration are often simply superimposed on traditional structures without a clear delineation of responsibilities and competencies, implying that they lack both outreach and social legitimacy. It is thus concluded that land issue has a strong touch on a wide range of issues in different thematic areas. It is a cross cutting issue and touches all aspects of social, economic and political activities in rural areas. Therefore, land use conflicts may affect the all sectors and live hoods of the natives of a specific area and Tanzania in general. It is recommended that there is a need of having strong legal management machinery which dealing with land management in the country. Also raising awareness on land rights is a crucial thing in land ownership. Furthermore, the least there is a need to encourage land registration to the rural people. This service should be allocated in rural areas where most land conflicts occur.
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    National water policy (2002) implementation and the accessibility of domestic water supply in Sangasanga, Lubungo and Mafuru villages in Mvomero District
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Kapinga, Malboard Mathew
    This study aimed at assessing the implementation of the National Water Policy (2002) in Mvomero District. The main objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the implementation of National Water Policy (2002) had contributed to accessibility of rural domestic water supply in Mvomero District. In order to achieve the assessment, the study had four objectives as follows; The first objective examined the context in which the water policy is implemented. The second objective assessed the availability and adequacy of infrastructures. The third objective was to establish the nature and the extent of community involvement in the water policy implementation. The fourth objective was to determine the level of satisfaction of consumers. The research used cross-sectional design. Data collection was through face-to-face interviews, questionnaire, site observation and documentary review. The sample size was 120 involving 105 household heads and 15 key informants. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). Qualitative data were analysed by using content analysis. The results were presented in tables, charts, and figures. The findings for the first objective showed that the condition of water source was very bad, community awareness on the implementation of the National Water Policy (2002) was very poor, average distance to collect water for domestic use for the majority was between 400 and 1000 meters and there was frequent occurrence of water borne diseases such as diarrhoea due to lack of water treatment caused by wrong traditional beliefs. As for the second objective the findings showed that there were no sufficient and adequate water infrastructure in the study area. With regard to the third objective findings showed that there was negative community response to contribution in kind and cash for maintenance and running of water infrastructures. The findings for the fourth objective showed that the community in the study area was not satisfied with water supply services. Overall, the findings show that the implementation of the National Water Policy (2002) in the study area has not been fully achieved. The study recommends as follows: First, local the government should explore ways of utilizing Mindu dam which is close to the study area. Secondly, the local government should see how to collaborate with Mzumbe University to expand its water infrastructure so as to supply water in the study area. Thirdly, the government should increase water budget in LGAs. Fourthly, there is a need of raising community awareness on the importance of treating water
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    Social insecurity and vulnerability of the elderly to poverty: a case study of Morogoro Municipality
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Mathias, Sidina
    Social insecurity and vulnerability of elderly are among problems that are still facing the elderly in Tanzania. This study was designed to assess how the elderly access social services, establish the magnitude and identify factors which contribute to increased social insecurity and vulnerability as well as assessing existence and adequacy of institutional support to these elderly in Morogoro Municipality. The study employed a cross-sectional study design which involved visiting and interviewing 96 elderly people from four wards namely, Chamwino, Mwembesongo, Kichangani and Boma. It was observed that the majority of male elderly were married (76.7%) while the majority of female elderly were widows (66.0%). It was also found that more than 90% of elderly persons interviewed were not employed. Fifty nine percent lived below poverty line. The majority (67.7%) of respondents were supported by their children and relatives while few reported to depend on crop farming (40.6%) or business (21.9%) for livelihood. Access to food and balanced diet was a big problem and approximately 40% reported to skip a lunch every day. The major complaints of the elderly on health services included lack of diagnostic facilities, unavailability of medicine and specialized clinics for the elderly diseases. A big number of elderly was suffering from chronic diseases (69.8%) and supporting other vulnerable groups such as orphans (53%). However, the support of government and private institutions for elderly was limited. It is concluded that the majority of elderly people in Morogoro Municipality are poor and consequently they are socially insecure and vulnerable. It is recommended that the Government should support them through provision of universal pension to all the elderly above 60 years to improve their social security. The formulation of laws and regulations to guide the implementation of the national ageing policy is pertinent.
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    Challenges facing private health service providers in Tanzania: a case of accredited drug dispensing outlets in Tabora Municipal council
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Kulwijira, Abiud James
    The study aimed at examining the Challenges facing private health service providers in Tanzania. Specifically, the study focused at examining the Performance of private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDO), the challenges facing private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in the provision of health services, the causes of the challenges facing the private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in the provision of services and measures in improving the performance of private Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in provision of service in Tabora Municipality. This study applied a case study design, which targeted ADDO owners in Tabora Municipal Council as the private health service providers. A sample size of 100 respondents was drawn by using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire, Interview and Observation methods were applied in collection of primary data, whereas documentary review method was adopted for collecting secondary data. The collected data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Excel Software and Content Analysis then presented in tables, figures and texts. The findings from the study revealed that; Unavailability of qualified staff, Poor storage facilities, shortage of required drugs, Low purchasing power, difficult drug policy, poor Government support, selling expired drugs and high training costs reported by respondents are the challenges facing ADDO. To overcome the challenges facing ADDO, the study suggests; adherence to the Government medical policies, Proper Dispensing of required drugs, effective and efficiency drug planning, improving drug storage and dispensing enough of the required drug.
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    Entrepreneurship training and sustainability of SMEs in Tanzania: a case of Morogoro Municipal council
    (Mzumbe University, 2019) Gideon, Iganile
    The dominant literature on entrepreneurship training and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sustainability contends in a general way that entrepreneurship training is one of the important tools for ensuring performance and sustainability of SMEs. There is scarce literature on the specific entrepreneurial trainings deemed relevant for enhancing SMEs’ sustainability in Tanzania in general and Morogoro in specifically. As such this study aimed at assess the contribution of entrepreneurship training towards attaining the sustainability of SMEs from the point of view of entrepreneurs, unveil the effects of entrepreneurship trainings deemed relevant for sustainability of SMEs and to examine the accessibility of such trainings to SMEs in Tanzania. The study mainly relied on interviews with privileged witnesses as well as ordinary voters (65). Through a qualitative research approach, this study was mainly informed by interviews with a sum of 62 SMEs owners from Sabasaba, Mazimbu and Kihonda wards in Morogoro Municipal Council. The fundamental argument of this study is that entrepreneurship trainings on identification of opportunities, customers’ services and record keeping were considered most important for sustainability of SMEs. It was further revealed that entrepreneurship training has effects to entrepreneurs’ business sustainability because through training, entrepreneurs have improved their performance of conducting activities as the results their sales and profits increase which eventually leads to growth and sustainability. However, it was revealed that training costs and other criteria set by training providers hamper entrepreneurs to attend such training which lead to poor performance and unstable SMEs. The study concludes that entrepreneurial knowledge and skills acquired by entrepreneurs are assets for business and stimulate business sustainability. As such, it is recommended that there is a need for the government and other authorities to provide training which is relevant for sustainability of SMEs as well as reducing the costs of training and unfavorable criteria to enable more small and medium entrepreneurs to attend training for enhancing growth and sustainability of their enterprises.
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    Potentiality of onion production to poverty reduction: the case of Ruangwa District, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Mbiha, Joram Reuben
    This study was conducted in order to examine the potentiality of onion production to poverty reduction in Ruangwa District. The study aimed at addressing the trend of onion production, magnitude of poverty in the study area, the market potential of onions and limiting factors facing onion production in the study area. The study involved 127 respondents selected randomly or purposely to meet the study objectives. The data were collected using interview and administration of questionnaires. The study showed that onion production is a potential activity in poverty reduction to farmers engaged in onion production. This was revealed by existing market potential, income obtained from sale of onions and its expenditure. Despite of this potentiality of onions to poverty reduction, its production was not consistent as there was rise and fall due to market fluctuation, frequent climatic change, high prices of agricultural inputs as well as application of poor farming methods. That is why people decided to produce other crops in order to reduce the magnitude of poverty. The income obtained ranged between 100,000 to more than 500,000 Tshs and expenditure priorities included health (21.1%), education (36.6%), purchase of building materials (22.5%), acquisition of furniture (18.3%) and other uses (1.4%). Hindrance to onion production was also caused by existence of different challenges such as lack of extension services (26.8%), low level of farmers’ education (19.7%), presence of poor roads (14.1%), poor farming methods (7.0%), poor agricultural tools (1.4%), unreliable market (18.3%), lack of government support (9.9%) and other (2.8%). From these findings, it was concluded that onion production has high potential to poverty reduction though it was still not delivering its full potential to poverty reduction. Therefore, the study recommended that there is a need for the government and other stakeholders to ensure that there is a reliable market, prices of agricultural inputs are reduced and ensure that cooperative societies operate to safeguard interests of onion producers. There is also a need to improve delivery of extension services and quality of roads. These measures in turn can increase opportunity to onion producers to earn more income at household and national levels as well as sales of onion in the foreign market.
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    The impact Of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on performance of Tanzania Posts Corporation (TPC)
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Isote, Lynnchristine Gregory
    This study aimed at exploring the impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on performance of Tanzania Posts Corporation (TPC). The study focused on examining ICT technologies available at TPC; assessing efforts used to improve product innovation in TPC; assessing performance trends before and after adoption of ICT in TPC and exploring customer responsiveness towards TPC services in the era of ICT. The study adopted a case study research design to attain its objectives. The sample size for the study was 62 respondents. Purposive sampling technique was used whereby questionnaire, interviews, observation and documentary review were used to collect data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Excel software were used in analysis, while data from in depth interviews were analyzed qualitatively. In this study, it was found that ICT technologies available at TPC include: computers, telephone and internet. Also, findings revealed that there was a statistically insignificance increase in performance before adoption of ICT and after adoption of ICT, whereby profitability of items posted in mails and logistic business, financial and agency business and courier business was assed, also Return on Asset and Marginal ratio were used as indicators. The eta squared statistic was applied and the results indicated very small effect size. In addition to that, the study revealed that customers still needed TPC services in the era of ICT in spite of development of other forms of communication like emails, mobile phones and internet. This study recommends increasing the government support to TPC by improving physical infrastructure and providing vehicles for transporting mail and parcel so that it can fulfill the major obligations of universal postal services to the customers so as to ensure efficiency in TPC operations. In order for TPC to enjoy the fruits of ICT on its performance, it must speed up the way of adopting ICT so as to ensure significance increase in performance. Finally, it is recommended that TPC must raise its trustworthiness, improve customer care, strengthen their network, improve their services and cope with market competition.
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    Challenges of micro-finance institutions towards women empowerment in Kilimanjaro Region Tanzania: a case study of Moshi Municipality
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Kyara, Stella E.
    The study identified the challenges that micro-finance institutions face in the process of empowering women in Moshi Municipality. The specific objectives of the study are; exploring the causes for challenges of micro-finance institutions, assessing the strength and opportunities found in Moshi Municipality for women empowerment, and lastly suggesting possible solutions to alleviate challenges that face micro-finance institutions in Moshi Municipality. The study adopted a case study design. Random sampling and purposive sampling were used to a total number of 70 respondents who were customers and staffs of micro-finance, and Municipal officials who were dealing with microfinance. Data collection for this study employed different methods such as questionnaires, interviews, observation and focused group discussion. With respect to the objectives the findings revealed several challenges, causes of the challenges and pointed strength and opportunities found in Moshi municipality which are; poor repayment, politics, delay of funds, bureaucracy, corruption, unfaithful staffs, and unfaithful customers. Causes for the challenges are poor management in the organizations, economic depression, and inflation. And lastly strengths and opportunities to empower women in Moshi Municipality pointed out are; availability of financial institutions, availability of funds, the area being in town where business can possibly flow due to the availability of good infrastructures, and availability of entrepreneurship education to the customers that gives them a wide knowledge of operating business and skills to manage funds they raise. Basing on the findings it was recommended that, there should be multiple ways to help in alleviating the experienced challenges which includes, design of suggestion box, trainings should be conducted for capacity building to customers, there should be a visit to customers' business for evaluation to see if they meet standards that can help them lend more money, lastly, financial management education should be provided to SACCOS board members and there should be more cooperative officers to support organizations in training, auditing and advise to the existing SACCOS.
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    Assessment of the implementation of Zanzibar education policy on education for learners with special needs: a case of urban west region schools
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Omar, Nafisa Iddi
    The general objective of this study was to assess the implementation of education policy on learners with special needs at Kisiwandui. Four schools of Mwanakwerekwe A, Kiembesamaki A and Mwanakwerekwe F schools at Zanzibar were purposively selected to provide the needed information. The data collection techniques used were interview, questionnaire, reference books and physical observations. Literature review aimed to find out how learners with special needs can be mainstreamed and acquire quality education. Generally, the findings show that awareness creation campaigns were conducted by special unit. The findings also show that many teachers have enough experience on teaching learners with special needs although they lack proper knowledge. At the same time it was observed that there were inadequate learning materials for supporting learners with special needs. On the other hand it was found out those learners with special needs got support from their relatives when doing their homework. The study concludes that before reviewing or developing new curriculum there is a need of conducting research. During the development of curriculum, the Ministry officials should involve the appropriate stakeholders, as this will lead to the development of appropriate curriculum. Also, the government should find the means of getting more equipment and devices which smoothen the learning process and teaching for all learners specifically to those with special needs. The policy implications show that there are some areas that need much consideration. In this regard there is still need for the government to come up with policy strategies that will enable learners with special needs to get education in a conducive environment that will enable them to be active participants in the economy with other groups in the community.
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    Analysing the effectiveness of the proposed child protection system model in preventing and responding to violence against children in Temeke District, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Kayoza, Harold K.
    Generally, the study intended to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed child protection system model in preventing and responding to violence against children. The study was conducted at Temeke District. The objectives of the study were; to examine 3 the status of violence against children in Temeke District, to assess the implementation of Child Protection System Model (CPSM), to identify the extent to which the child protection system model has been effective and to examine challenges in implementing the child protection system model. The case study research design was used whereas a sample of 40 respondents was used in collecting data. Primary data was collected through questionnaire and interview guide while secondary data was collected through documentary analysis. The study found that, there are 54 cases that are recorded from July 2013 to June 2014. The study found that, the number of recorded cases dropped from 3 to 2 cases in July and September respectively. In October the number of recorded cases increases to 11 cases. Also, the study found that, there are different types of VAC in Temeke District. Moreover, the study found that, the large number of the respondents identified mental impairment as a major effect facing victims. The major effects facing victims involve; death, aggressive behavior and physical impairment. The study concludes that child protection system model has been effective for some extent. Although significant steps have been taken to improve child protection system model for the protection of the rights of children in the piloted areas in Tanzania, the study recommends that there is a need to improve the effectiveness of the child protection system model, this requires accountability and transparency, good laws and policies cannot protect children unless all duty bearers are held accountable to them.
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    An analysis of challenges facing folk development colleges in the Southern Highlands zone, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Kalole, Josephine G.
    This study examined the challenges which faced the development of FDCs in the Southern Highland Zone of Tanzania. It was inspired by the fact that FDCs’ development was moving backward and the challenges were less known. The study specifically identified the causes of the challenges facing FDCs, found out how the challenges facing FDCs in the southern highlands zone of Tanzania could be addressed, and explored measures for strengthening FDCs. The study used a cross-sectional research design with a sample of 36 respondents who were selected though convenience and purposive sampling techniques. Data were collected by using questionnaires, interviews, and documentary review methods. They were analyzed by using SPSS and Microsoft Word for text processing and editing. The study shows that inadequate facilities, poor infrastructure, shortage of qualified personnel, inadequate technological tools, and community’ negative attitude were the challenges which affected FDCs in the study areas. The effects of those challenges were lack of qualified teachers, poor teaching, drop outs, students’ poor performance, students’ failure, unwillingness to teach, teachers’ resignation, and hence bad reputation of FDCs. Measures such as enough budget allocation for FDCs, employing adequate qualified personnel, increasing facilities, involving stakeholders in planning, were proposed. There was also a need to strengthen FDCs through involving development partners, conducting fundraising activities, staff capacity building. Relevant recommendations are made.
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    The impact of migrant livestock keepers on the natives and natural resources of Kilombero valley, in Tanzania: a case of Kilombero District
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Kabuye, Alto Mbikiye
    This study investigated the impact of migrant livestock keepers on the natives and natural resources of Kilombero valley. Both descriptive and exploratory designs involving the use of various data collection methods such as questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The study also used documentary review to collect secondary data fromvarious report concerning migrant livestock keepers. Data were analysed by Microsoft excel and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16. The study revealed that migration of livestock keepers to the study area had both positive and negative impacts. As the results of migrant livestock keepers, agricultural activities, trade and animal keeping have increased in the area. On the other hand, activities such as fishing and hunting activities have decreased. The study revealed that migrant livestock keepers have caused small changes in cultural elements of the natives. It was established that migrants have brought a great changes in natives’ ways of perfuming works, marriage matters as well as food and eating behaviour. Other cultural elements were found not to be affected much. The study further showed that migrant livestock keepers used natural resources of the study area to large extent. Resources such as water, wetland, natural vegetation and land/space for carrying out human development activities were reported to decrease. The findings showed that natives have used land use plans, eviction, use of village security guards “sungu sungu”, and use of by - laws among other strategies to protect natives culture and natural resources from being engulfed by the migrant livestock keepers. But strategies used were reported to have done little work compared to the expectations. The study concluded that natural resources were mostly affected by migrant livestock keepers activities compared to the native activities and culture. It was recommended that co - existence approach between agriculturalist and pastoralist and cooperation between different government departments, local authorities and the general local community need be adopted for the sustainable management of the natural resources in Kilombero valley.
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    Assessment of land use conflicts in Tanzania: a case study of Songambele and Mkoka villages in Kongwa District, Dodoma Region
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Mbonde, Francis Justine
    The study was done in Songambele and Mkoka villages Kongwa District, Dodoma.The study focused on Assessment of land use conflicts in Tanzania. Taking Mkoka and Songambele villages as a case study. The study addressed the following three objectives(i) to access the causes of land use conflicts in selected villages in the study area.(ii) identify types of land conflicts in selected villages in the study area.(iii) to identify the effects of land use conflicts in the study area. The population of the study consisted of village land committee, Land tribunal, and villagers. The study involved a sample of 105 respondents including 90 respondents who were randomly selected and 15 respondents that were selected purposefully. A cross sectional research design was used however qualitative and quantitative approach were used to design research questions. Four methods were used to collect data to address the research objectives. These included a questionnaire, interview, observations, documents review.The data collected were analyzed by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The research finding revealed that, the causes of land use conflicts in Mkoka and Songambele was pastoralist keep graze their cattle in the farms, removing of demarcation, and land grabbing by powerful individual, scarcity of grazing land, double leasing of plots ,no title deeds. Types of land use conflicts clashes between pastoralists and farmers, families and families and other between villagers. However, the effect associated with land use conflicts include: shortage of food to villagers, killing, and loss of peace among the villages, crop and livestock destruction, lose of originally owned land, development stagnation, decrease of income. The study therefore recommended that government should raise awareness on land use policy to the villagers through provision of seminars, workshops and leaflets on land use policy and the rights of people. The government should also put clear and permanent boundaries in surveyed land in the villages, The anti corruption institution should make frequent follow up of the village land committee and land tribunal on their judgements regarding land use conflicts.
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    Assessment of performance of vocational training centres on youth unemployment reduction: a case of Mkokotoni Vocational Training Centre in North A District, Zanzibar
    (Mzumbe University, 2013) Juma, Juma N.
    Youth unemployment is a serious problem facing developed and developing countries since the early 2000s, and it has huge impact in socio-economic context. It was therefore important to deploy initiatives in order to overcome or reduce the consequences of this problem. Vocational training was thought to be the best option to counteract the problem. This study assessed the performance of VTCs on youth unemployment reduction in Zanzibar where four main aspects involved which were: courses offered in VTCs, students’ enrolment trend, extent to which VTCs reduced unemployment, and challenges which faced VTCs. The study used exploratory research design and involved 140 respondents to assess performance through administration of a questionnaire, interviews, focused group discussions, observation and documentary review. The findings revealed that a total of eleven courses offered and the Majority of respondents joined in courses which depended on being employed or had low employment possibilities. Also, students’ enrolment was still very low (below 1 percent). It was found that only 28 percent of trainees had employment while 72 percent had no employment, and the main employer was hotel industries which employed 55 percent of trainees while 45 percent were self- employed. In addition, there was inadequate training materials by 74 percent and shortage of materials and equipments for field and practical sessions by 55 percent. To a large extent, performance of VTCs was affected by different challenges such as lack of areas for field practices (27 percent), and poor coordination (14 percent) which limit performance of VTCs towards well qualified and competent trainees delivery. It therefore concluded that VTCs’ performance on youth unemployment reduction is still not satisfactory. The study therefore recommended measures to improve VTCs’ performance in employment creation such as: the Government should collaborate with the private sector, ensure accessibility of VTCs in tourism areas and review of VTCs’ curriculum to suit with the current situation of labour market.
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    Education and training policy and access to education for most vulnerable children in children care centres in Hai District, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2018) Mwanga, Robert A.
    This study focused on assessing the implications of the Education and Training Policy in access to primary education for most vulnerable children (MVC) in children care centres in Hai district, Tanzania. The study assessed community knowledge of the MVC in children care centres, ways through which education is provided to the MVC, how the policy has improved access to primary education for the MVC, and influencing factors. The study employed a case study method and engaged 137 respondents who were selected by using purposive sampling and simple random techniques. Data were collected by using interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and documentary review and analysed through Microsoft excel and presented in table, quotations and percentages. Findings show that respondents had high level of awareness about MVC in children care centres as they were well informed about it; knew about availability of MVC; could distinguish MVC from non MVC; and identified the children care centers. Primary education to the MVC was provided through extra curriculum trainings, enrolment of the most vulnerable children in nearby public schools, engagement of donors, exclusion from mandatory contributions, and continuation from ended classes. It was found that since the introduction of the children care centres there has been more achievements in educational status of the MVC. The achievements are life skills acquisition; decrease of truants in schools; unsegregational learning environment; integrated funding; increase of education facilities, number of MVC in secondary and technical trainings increase; and improvement of self-identification ability among MVC. The failures are insufficient education privileges to MVC, failure of the MVC to cope with their original families when back home, and inadequate donations and supports as needs are many. Access facilitating factors are short distance to schools, availability of donors, children care centres' own financial capacity, stigmatization free environment, good conduct of care givers, integration of the most vulnerable and non vulnerable children in school, good educational infrastructures and lastly support from village government. The limiting factors are insufficiency of teachers trained on special needs education, lack of good community participation, land insufficiency and hidden indirect objectives of the children care centres. To enhance education for the MVC there is need for increasing number of qualified teachers for children with special needs, promote community participation, look for more spaces for building children care centres and schools, and promote good governance among stakeholders.
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    Assessing implementation of Zanzibar Forest Policy (1999) on major reforestation challenges in North ‘A’ District: a case of Jongowe and Mkokotoni Shehias
    (Mzumbe University, 2015) Haji, Mwadini M.
    The study designed to assess the implementation of the National Forest Policy for Zanzibar (1999). The focus was to assess major reforestation challenges in North “A” district – Zanzibar including the community‟s support of tree planting, other socio-economic effects on the program, the availability of seedlings, and perception about the program. Data were collected from a sample of 90 community members and 1 Forest District Officer, 1 Assistant Planning Officer and 2 Shehas from the selected village in the district. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, charts and tables were used. The key finding of the study shows that the community was supported in some areas on tree planting but that this was not enough. Also, people have positive perception on tree planting but there was poor community participation in tree planting meetings and programmes, shortage of land for planting trees, difficulty in obtaining tree seedlings and shortage of extension services. The study concluded that the tree planting campaigns will not be successful to the extent that people may not participate in those campaigns; more support is needed to enable the community to plant more trees; the efforts made to promote sustainable forest-related community activities were not effectively implemented; the size of land owned by the community in the study area was small; and it was difficult to obtain tree seedlings for the community. Policy implications are that there is the need, first, to have policy interventions to enable community to access enough land for tree planting; second, to provide adequate support to the community; third, to obtain relevant information concerning tree planting; and, fourth, to have laws and regulations that enable community to access land for forestation and to have knowledge and skills on production of tree seedlings and of forest in general.
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    Exploring the role of theatre in empowering children: the case of Baba Watoto Centre in Dar es salaam, Tanzania
    (Mzumbe University, 2019) Edward, Sophia
    Stakeholders are striving to improve the lives of children both in families as well as in streets. Such efforts are ongoing since the children are faced with unique challenges of their own. This research study was conducted as part of such efforts. The main objective of the study was to find out the role and prospects of Baba Watoto Centre in the Children’s Empowerment. The specific objectives were centred at describing the activities of Baba Watoto Centre, identifying elements of theatre in activities done by Baba Watoto Centre and lastly assessing the role of Theatre at Baba Watoto Centre in Children’s Empowerment. The study was conducted at Dar es Salaam Region, Kinondoni District, at Baba Watoto Centre, Mburahati area. Contextual analysis research configuration was embraced, whereby both organized and unstructured inquiries were connected to gather essential data and information from a chose test size of 30 respondents containing 20 kids, and 10 staff of Baba Watoto Centre. Further investigation, focus group thoughts and casual trek were led to get more subtleties of the essential overview findings. Auxiliary information was gotten through writing/archives survey from Baba Watoto office, Mzumbe University library and on the web. Subjective information investigation was utilized to get elucidating measurements, frequencies, rates and means while subjectively true data were acquired through Centre gathering discourse. The outcomes of this examination demonstrated that, Baba Watoto Centre is assuming a positive job in engaging kids through theatre. Children feels restored, protected, upbeat, freed and significant to the society. More involvement of various children will act as a means of talent recognition. Therefore, the study recommended, financial assistance to Centre, establishment of more Centre, government intervention and support, various stakeholders’ technical know-how skills on how to deal with children, so as to, enhance better performance of the Centre and a means to empower children.