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ItemAnalysis of customers' satisfaction with library services at the Sokoine National Agricultural Library (SNAL) in Morogoro Region, Tanzania(University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2018) Bea, George; Musabila, Albogast K.; Deogratus DanielThis paper analyses customers' satisfaction with the services of the Sokoine National Agricultural Library (SNAL) using a mixed-method approach. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using questionnaires and interviews, which were supplemented by document analysis. A total of 72 respondents were selected using simple random and purposive sampling procedures. Data were analysed descriptively and were presented in tables, pie charts and percentages. The expectancy disconfirmation theory with the Four-Level Zone of Tolerance (ZoT) developed by Oliver (1980) guided data analysis in this study. Findings indicate that learning materials and services provided by SNAL are relatively sufficient due to the satisfaction level of the majority of customers being over 50%. This shows that the Library has relevant learning materials which mostly meet users’ needs. However, some respondents showed dissatisfaction with challenges they faced in accessing library resources due to: the poor arrangement of books on shelves made users spend a lot of time searching for materials, lack of adequate security in the Library that made some users’ properties in their bags temporarily kept in the Library being stolen and lack of good customer care practices from some library staff. The study recommends the factors prompting users’ dissatisfaction be addressed so as to regain customers’ satisfaction and loyalty to the Library. ItemEquipping library users with digital literacy skills as a solution to COVID-19 and other similar disasters: Lessons from Mzumbe University library users(Dar es Salaam University Press (DUP), 2023) Josephat, W.; Mosha, G.; Siyao, P.The need for equipping students in Higher Learning Institutions with Digital Literacy Skills (DLS) is considered one of the measures that can enable academic libraries to deliver library services during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. This study aims at answering the following question: What types of digital literacy skills and tools were used by academic libraries during the COVID-19 closure of the universities. It also aims at analysing the way digital literacy skills could be used to support library services during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Similarly, it examines barriers which inhibited the deployment of digital literacy skills during its outbreak. The study adopted a case study design while using a mixed approach to data collection. A total of 46 respondents were drawn from the population using both census sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Data were collected using interview–guides, questionnaires and documentary reviews. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis while quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet. The findings indicated that academic library is required to cooperate with faculties and schools by deploying the following digital tools: e-learning platforms, increasing the use of social media, conducting webinars, updating the library website, encouraging the use of library e-resources and improving the library virtual reference services. The following barriers were strongly mentioned as inhibitors of equipping respondents with digital literacy skills: poor internet connectivity, family income status, lack of comprehensive training on digital literacy skills, attitudes of lecturers towards digital literacy skills and lack of teleworking culture among librarians, students and lecturers. It was also noted that the deployment of digital literacy skills was worsened by an acute shortage of funding and resources. The study concludes that for libraries to effectively deliver library services both librarians and users must possess the necessary digital literacy skills. The ICT infrastructure, on the other hand, must be improved to enable libraries to apply digital literacy tools and facilities in the delivery of library services. The need to overhaul library training programmes adding a course on digital literacy skills and deployment of other emerging technologies in the delivery of library services. This study is anticipated to provide insights into the conditions of academic libraries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study findings will be an eye opener to academic libraries that they have to undergo rapid transformations which will enable them to stay relevant and able to provide services during the pandemic and similar disasters. ItemEvaluation of APA citation and referencing style for dissertations uploaded in the Mzumbe University Institutional Repository(Dar es Salaam University Press (DUP), 2023) Mshana, Sofia,; Mosha, Goodluck E.; Siyao, Peter OnauphooCitation and referencing are paramount aspects of any scholarly and scientific writing. They are part of indications that the authors have done justice to the works of others and are one of the ways of avoiding plagiarism. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which postgraduate students at Mzumbe University adhere to the APA citation and referencing style in their dissertations uploaded to the Mzumbe Institutional Repository (MUIR) platform for the year between 2013 through 2019. This study employed a cross-sectional research design, which enables data to be collected at a single point in time. A mixed approach was used as the data collection method. A random sampling technique was used to select 128 dissertations from a population of 1056 dissertations uploaded in the MUIR between 2013 and 2019 for content analysis. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select a total of five postgraduate students and three lecturers who were involved in the interviews. Five research methods course outlines were also purposively selected to check if they contain topics or sub-topics on citation and referencing. Microsoft Spreadsheet was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data were analysed through content analysis. The findings show that a total of 70; 54.7 per cent of dissertations uploaded in the MUIR for seven years adhered to in-text citation APA style guidelines whereas 58; 45.3 per cent of dissertations did not adhere to the APA citation and referencing style. Major irregularities identified were unnecessary capitalisation, poor insertion of punctuation marks, incorrect use of ‘et al’ and lack of uniformity in writing the lists of references. The findings also showed that only one out of five postgraduate programme course outlines had a sub-topic on citation and referencing instructions. This study concludes that there was poor quality of in-text citations and referencing among postgraduate dissertations submitted to the MUIR between the years 2013 to 2019. This calls for serious intervention. The study calls upon responsible university units to employ strategies which will help in enforcing students’ compliance with dissertation writing guidelines. To ensure compliance, supervisors and external examiners should pay adequate attention to citation and referencing styles when supervising and examining theses and dissertations. There is a need of reviewing postgraduate research methods courses to add a topic on citation and referencing styles. University should also subscribe and sensitise postgraduate students on the importance of using reference management tools for improved citations and referencing styles in academic writing. ItemNeed assessment for the deployment of an Institutional Repository at Mzumbe University(DRPS - Mzumbe University, 2011-12-30) Kuzilwa, M.; Bea, G.; Mosha, G.; Ghasia, MThis study focused on understanding the need for establishing an Institutional Repository (IR) at Mzumbe University from the readers’ perspective. The study used a sample of 222 respondents comprising staff and students drawn from Mzumbe University's Main Campus, Dar es salaam Campus College (DCC) and Mbeya Campus College (MCC). The sample was selected using the purposive sampling procedure for the explicit purpose of obtaining information from the two main groups of respondents, that is, males and females. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Data were analysed using the content analysis procedure and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and results were presented in tables and figures showing descriptive statistics, mainly frequencies and percentages. The findings indicated that the majority of Mzumbe University readers (96%) support the establishment of an IR. This is due to some of the perceived benefits to be gained, such as increased and wider access to information needed for teaching and learning, as well as increased visibility of Mzumbe University research output that would be useful for the prestige of authors and the University. ItemPivotal roles of the libraries in transforming education sector in Tanzania:(TLSB, 2022) Mosha Goodluck E.Aim & Background: This study aims at establishing the role which can be played by libraries in the transformation of the education sector taking the case of the United Republic of Tanzania. The author delineates the roles libraries need to play in the transforming educational sector in Tanzania. The study is based on the premise that if library resources and facilities will not be improved the transformation of the education sector in the country will not be positively realized. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to form data for this study. E-databases subscribed by Mzumbe University were searched to identify scholarly works on the role of the library in transforming the education sector. A total of sixteen papers qualified to be used in this study. Results obtained from the review were synthesized into a narrative text. Results: It was noted that the time between the 1970s to early 1990s education transformation in Tanzania was linked with libraries' myriad roles in education were vividly seen. As of the mid-1990s, a lot of challenges inhibited libraries from playing their role in supporting transformation in the education sector in Tanzania. The study suggested possible solutions to revamp the role of the library in transforming the educational sector in the country. Conclusion and Recommendations: Libraries are vital institutions, which cannot be separated from education. The presence of libraries is crucial and indispensable to education in a nation. Teachers’ education curriculum in Tanzania should include library education courses so that where a library lacks trained library staff teachers can assist in library management and in equipping students with basic information literacy skills. Keywords: Libraries, Educational sector, Education transformation, Adults education, Tanzania, Library and education, mobile libraries, ItemThe effectiveness of students’ knowledge ambassadors in promoting the usage of e-resources: A case study of Mzumbe University( University of Dar es Salaam, 2022) Sulle, Elizabeth SlaqwaraThis study assesses the effectiveness of Students’ Knowledge Ambassadors (SKAs) in promoting the usage of subscribed e-resources in academic libraries in Tanzania. Specifically, the study intended to identify the criteria used to select SKAs in promoting the usage of e-resources, explore perceptions of fellow students towards the effectiveness of SKAs in promoting the usage of subscribed e-resources, and examine the challenges of using SKAs’ to effectively promote the usage of subscribed e-resources and identify strategies that could be used by MUL to improve SKAs’ effectiveness in promoting the usage of e-resources. A descriptive case study research design, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed in the study. Along with this, cross-sectional surveys, FGD, and observation were employed to collect data. Whereas SPSS was used to analyze quantitative data, content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Important criteria considered in selecting SKAs to join the programme include self-confidence, self-motivation, ICT competencies, and information search competencies as well as communication skills. The study also noted that SKAs are generally perceived positively by peers in promoting the usage of subscribed e-resources. In terms of challenges, various factors that hinder the effective use of SKAs include low internet connectivity, inadequate mentorship, inadequate funds, lack of incentives, inadequate ICT facilities, and misconceptions about the role of SKA. The study concludes, that the best selection criteria for SKA must be guided by well-written rules and policies headed by librarians. The study indicates the need for SKA’s mentorship to improve peers' positive perceptions of SKA’s effectiveness in promoting the usage of subscribed e-resources. Therefore, the study concludes that there is a need to address several challenges affecting the effectiveness of SKA as well as improve viable strategies that aim to promote the effectiveness of students’ knowledge ambassadors in promoting the usage of electronic resources. Based on its results, the study recommends several issues including putting in place SKA selection criteria guidelines or policy that intensifies the mentorship of SKAs, guaranteeing the sustainability of the SKA programme, establishing a progressive ICT infrastructure, and ensuring commitment from librarians. ItemThe role of newspapers in the dissemination of climate change information in Tanzania(Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Siyao, Peter OnauphooNewspapers make an important communication channel for disseminating many kinds of information. However, there are concerns in many developing countries such as Tanzania that important developmental topics such as climate change are not often given adequate coverage and prominence; instead much attention is paid to topics such as politics, entertainment, crimes, and advertisements. This study established the coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers for a span of 10 years. Specifically, it sought to determine the frequency of reportage given to climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers, determine the level of prominence given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers, establish the sources of information used by newspaper journalists to obtain climate change information, and assess the use of newspapers in accessing climate change information by selected peri-urban newspaper readers in Tanzania. Quantitative data were collected through content analysis and survey whereas qualitative data were collected through key informants interviews. The sample size of the study was 1,600 newspaper editions, 44 newspaper journalists, and 153 peri-urban newspaper readers. Purposive sampling technique was used to select newspapers, regions, and key informants. Snowball sampling technique was used to select peri-urban newspaper readers. Systematic and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain newspaper editions and journalists. Quantitative data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 20 whereas qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. This thesis was developed in paper format. The first paper analysed the level of attention given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers. The results indicate that Tanzanian newspapers had very few (684; 0.84%) articles on climate change giving yearly average of 68.4 articles. Chi-square test indicates a significant difference at 5 percent level of significance (χ2 = 21,765, p-value < 2.2e _16) between the level of coverage of climate change articles and that of other topics in the selected newspapers. These findings suggest that Tanzanian newspapers do not pay adequate attention to climate change issues. The second paper analysed the level of prominence given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers. The findings indicate that of the 684 climate change information articles published in 10 years, only 53 (7.6%) articles appeared on the front pages of the six Tanzanian newspapers, giving yearly average of five articles for all newspapers and only one article for each newspaper per year. Chi-square test shows a statistical significance at 5 percent level (χ2 = 10.000; p-value<0.002) between placement of articles on the front and inside pages. These findings suggest that climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is not given the required level of prominence. The third paper assessed information sources used by Tanzanian newspaper journalists to collect climate change information. The findings indicate that 64 percent of climate change experts and 34.1 percent of daily events such as community meetings and other social gatherings were the main sources of climate change information consulted by newspaper journalists in Tanzania. Other sources of information were less consulted. These include libraries and information centres (2.3%); brochures, magazines, and bulletins (5.6%); journals (11.4%), books (14%), and internet websites (22.7%). Challenges such as abiding by journalistic norms to balance news in climate change (91%), low motivation (77.30%), lack of interest in climate change (75%), financial constraints (68.20%), lack of awareness on the available sources of information (63.64%) and limited knowledge on climate change (61.36%) prevented newspaper journalists from seeking and reporting climate change information. The fourth paper assessed the use of newspapers by peri-urban newspaper readers in accessing climate change information. The findings show that newspapers (65%) are important sources used by peri-urban newspaper readers to access climate change information. Peri-urban newspaper readers experienced challenges such as inadequate coverage of climate change information (87%), unreliability of climate change information (84%), low prominence attached to climate change information (82%), cost barriers (78%), inadequate community information centres and public libraries (73%) in peri-urban areas. These were reported as constraints that impeded newspapers from accessing climate change information. In view of the foregoing findings, it is concluded that coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is very low. This is reflected by the few number of climate change articles in these newspapers. Similarly, the level of prominence attached to climate change articles is very low. This means that Tanzanian newspapers have not adequately played their role of reporting developmental issues including climate change. Increased coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is necessary for the government and general public to direct their efforts to climate change adaptation, coping, and mitigation strategies. Furthermore, newspaper journalists prefer to consult interactive sources to obtain climate change information because they allow a two-way flow of information, they are easily accessible, and they use and provide instant responses. Likewise, climate change information consumers prefer to use newspapers written in Kiswahili which is understood by majority of readers and those which have high news coverage and circulation. The following recommendations are made: (i) Government and private media houses should formulate and introduce clear guidelines and policies of ensuring that the levels of coverage and prominence of developmental issues including climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers are increased. (ii) Government, private newspaper media houses, climate change researchers, organisations involved in the fight against climate change, and journalism colleges should collaborate and devise strategies aimed at building capacity to newspaper editors, journalists, and reporters of dealing with climate change information. This can be achieved by introducing climate change journalism course which will in turn lead to the acquisition of specialised skills and knowledge in writing and reporting evidence based scientific developmental issues findings including climate change in the print media such as newspapers. (iii) Newspaper media houses should overcome barriers that impede coverage and reportage of climate change information. One way of overcoming such barriers include the provision of adequate financial resources to newspaper journalists which will help them acquire necessary resources including ICTs and for meeting other necessary expenses such as travel and accommodation which in turn will enable them to participate in research works for increasing coverage of climate change information in the newspapers. (iv) Climate change information generators such as Tanzania Meteorological Agency should repackage and disseminate reliable climate change forecast that address the needs of the public through popular newspapers with national status. (v) National and local government authorities should provide adequate financial support to public libraries in establishing community information resource centres in peri-urban areas for enabling newspaper readers to access developmental information particularly climate change through Tanzanian newspapers at no or minimal costs.