Modeling sustainability of energy access in Rural Areas of Tanzania

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Mzumbe University
Lack of access to sustainable energy is an enduring problem facing rural households in Tanzania. This problem is caused by lack of model for measuring its sustainability. This study developed a model for measuring sustainability of energy access in rural areas of Tanzania. Positivism philosophy with deductive approach and cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. Data from rural Njombe and Iringa regions in Tanzania were collected using questionnaires. Districts and Villages were sampled using Multistage Cluster Sampling technique while rural households were randomly selected using Fishbowl draw method. Multinomial Logistic Regression, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling were used to analyse data. The study revealed that, indicators of energy access were availability, affordability, durability, efficiency, non-emission of smokes, easiness to use and the ability to keep cooking facilities clean. Moreover, it was revealed that, the indicators of sustainability of energy access involved social, economic, environmental, technical and institutional. Furthermore, the study revealed that education level, age, occupation, household size, and income determine the choice of energy sources. Lastly, a model for measuring sustainability of energy access in rural areas of Tanzania should consider social, economic, environmental, technical, and Institutional indicators. The study concludes that the revealed indicators of energy access and its sustainability are useful in improving standard of living of rural households. Moreover, the study concludes that, apart from level of income, other factors such as age, household size, occupation, and education level determine the choices of energy sources. Lastly, the study concludes that apart from social, economic and environmental indicators, the model for measuring sustainability of energy access in rural areas of Tanzania should also take into consideration technical and institutional indicators. The study recommends that, the identified indicators and its model to be used by energy experts, rural households, and government to ensure sustainable provision of energy. Moreover, apart from improving the income of rural households, training of rural households on sustainable use of energy sources, promoting reforestation and the use of modern cooking facilities should be done to ensure energy sources are being provided in a sustainable way in rural areas of Tanzania.
A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Mzumbe University.
Energy Model, Time Series Energy Models, Econometric Energy Models, Energy Transition Theory